The New Left
In the 1960s, American students formed what became known as this. In 1962, a group of students gathered in Michigan to form an organization to give voice to their demands: Students for a Democratic Society. This was a student radicalism organization that was determined to build a new politics.
Free Speech Movement
A 1964 dispute at the engage in political activities on campus was the first outburst of what was to be nearly a decade of campus turmoil.
An offshoot of SDS, they were responsible for a few cases of arson and bombing that destroyed campus buildings and claimed several lives.
Closely related to the New Left, this was a new youth culture openly scornful of the values and conventions of middle-class society. The most visible characteristic was a change in personal styles.
Along with Joan Baez, these were leading folk singers who used their music to express explicit political radicalism.
New policy in which the federal government withdrew all official recognition of the tribes as legal entities, administratively separate from state governments, and made them subject to the same local jurisdictions as white residents.
National Congress of American Indians
Created in 1944 because of the struggle against termination and the principle of Native American organization. In 1961, more than 400 members of 67 tribes gathered in Chicago and issued the Declaration of Indiana Purpose, which stressed the "right to choose our own way of life" and the "responsibility of preserving our precious heritage."
American Indian Movement
In 1968, a group of young, militant Indians established this, which drew support from urban areas and reservations alike.
Indian Civil Rights Act
1968, guaranteed reservation Indians many of the protections accorded other citizens by the Bill of rights, but which also recognized the legitimacy of tribal laws within the reservations.
Wounded Knee Occupation
In February 1973, members of AIM seized and occupied this town in South Dakota, the site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux by federal troops, for two months, demanding radical changes in the administration of the reservation and insisting that the government honor its long-forgotten treaty obligations.
Created an effective union of itinerant farmworkers: The United Farm Workers, a largely Mexican organization.
In June 1969, police officers raided this Inn, which was a gay nightclub in New York, and began arresting patrons for attending the place. Gay onlookers taunted the police and then attacked them. Someone started a fire in the Inn, almost trapping people inside. This marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement. New organizations also began to rise up, like the Gay Liberation Front, which was founded in New York.
Wrote The Feminine Mystique, which was published in 1963 and is often cited as the first event of contemporary women's liberation. She traveled around the country interviewing women who had graduated with her from Smith College in 1947.
Equal Pay Act
John Kennedy established the President's Commission on the Status of Women, which brought national attention to sexual discrimination. Also in 1963, Kennedy helped pass this, which barred the pervasive practice of paying women less then men for the same work.
National Organization for Women
In 1966, Friedan joined with other feminists to create this, which was to become the nations largest and most influential feminist organization. They responded to the complaints of the women by demanding greater educational opportunities for women and denouncing the domestic ideal of marriage.
Sandra Day O' Conner
In 1981, Ronald Reagan named the first female Supreme Court justice, this women. In 1993, Bill Clinton named the second, Ruth Bader Ginsberg.
In 1984, the Democratic Party chose a woman, this representative of New York, as its vice presidential candidate.
Equal Rights Amendment
Congress approved of this in 1972 and sent it to the states. By the late 1970s, however, the momentum behind the amendment had died because of a rising chorus of objections to it from the people who feared it would disrupt traditional social patterns. In 1982, the amendment died.
Row v. Wade
1973, based on a new theory of a constitutional "right to privacy" first recognized by the Court only a few years earlier, the decision in this case invalidated all laws prohibiting abortion during the first trimester, the first three months of pregnancy.
1962, wrote a book, Silent Spring, which revealed the dangers of pesticides. It was based solidly on the ideas of ecologists and did at least as much as Leopold;s work to introduce those ideas to a larger public.
Along with the Sierra Club, these were some of the most important environmental organizations. They predated the rise of modern ecological science, but all of them entered the last decades re-energized and committed to the new concepts of environmentalism.
Lady Bird Johnson
The wife of LBJ, who helped raise public awareness of the landscape with her energetic "beautification" campaign in the mid-1960s- a campaign unconnected to any ecological concepts, but one that reflected a growing popular dismay at the despoliation for the landscape by rapid economic growth.
In the time when river and lake pollution was an extreme problem, in Cleveland, Oh, the Cuyahoga River actually burst into flame from time to time from the petroleum waste being dumped into it. The city declared the river of an official fire hazard.
A large oil spill occurred off the coast of Alaska in 1989 when this giant tanker hit a reef in Prince William Sound.
On April 22, 1970, people all over the United States participate in the first Earth Day. Originally purposed by Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson as a series of teach-ins on college campuses, Earth Day gradually took on a much larger life.
Environmental Protection Agency
In 1970 when congress and President Nixon signed the National Environmental Protection Act, which created this new agency to enforce antipollution standards on businesses and consumers.
The Clean Air Act
Passed in 1970, along with the Clean Water Act which was passed in 1972. These aided additional tools to the government's arsenal of weapons against environmental degradation.
A Harvard professor whom Nixon appointed as his special assistant for national security affairs. He quickly established dominance over Secretary of States and Defense. This man and Nixon set out to find an acceptable solution to the stalemate in Vietnam.
Nixon and Kissinger deiced that an effective way to tip the military balance in favor of American was to bomb the Vietnamese supply lines in Cambodia. After this Nixon went on t.V. publicly to announce that he was sending in ground troops to Cambodia to clean out the bases that the enemy had been using for attacks on South Vietnam. This restored the dwindling antiwar movement to vigorous life.
Kent State Shootings
On May 4, four college students were killed and nine others injured after members of the National Guard opened fire on antiwar demonstrators at Kent State University in Ohio.
Excerpts from a secret study of the war prepared by the Defense Department during the Johnson Administration. The papers were leaked to the press by former Defense official Daniel Ellsberd. These provided evidence that the government had been dishonest in reporting the military progress of the war and in explaining its own motives for American involvement.
a lieutenant who's unit began shooting and killing unarmed civilians at My Lai. he later maintained that he was following orders, but many of the soldiers present did not participate in the massacre.
Peace with Honor
as the election of 1972 approached, the Nixon administration changed their plans, they stopped insisting on removal of North Vietnamese troops from the south, and focused more on a breakthrough in negotiations with the North Vietnamese.
To re-convince North Vietnam when they called off talking, Nixon launched a 3 week bombing on Vietnam in late december.
1973 treaties that settle the terms for a U.S. withdrawal from Indochina, ending the war between the U.S. and North Vietnam. Left the North V. South Vietnam conflict unresolved.
Fall of Saigon
late in April 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon, shortly after officials of the Thieu regime and the staff of the American embassy had fled the country in humiliating disarray. The forces quickly occupied the capital, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City and began he process of uniting Vietnam under Hanoi.
This regime in Cambodia fell to the murderous forces of the Khmer Rouge- whose brutal policies led to the death of more than a third of the country's people over the next several years.
Nixon in China
In February 1971 Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
1972 treaty between the US and the Soviet Union that froze the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles and placed limits on antiballistic missiles.
proclaimed that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments but in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars without the support of large numbers of American troops.
Yom Kippur War
On this day, a Jewish Holy Day, in October 1973, when Egyptian and Syrian forces attacked Israel. For ten days, the Israelis struggled to recover from the surprise attack; finally, they launched an effective counteroffensive against Egyptian forces in the Sinai. At the same point, the U.S. intervened, placing heavy pressure on Israel to accept a cease fire rather than press its advantage. A breif but painful embargo by the Arab governments on the sale of oil to America in 1973 provided an ominous warning of the costs of losing access to the region's resources.
that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972.
Engel v. Vitale
banned formal prayer in schools, goverment whould not make any religion the 'official' religion.
Roth v. United States
a 1957 Supreme Court decision ruling that obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press.
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Ecobedo v. Illinois
Ruled that a defendent must be allowed a lawyer before questioning by police.
Miranda v. Arizona
Police must read you your rights, protects you against self-incrimination.
the Supreme Court justice durning the Nixon admistration. He was chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. He presided over the extremly controversal case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.
Swann v. Charlotte-Meckienburg Board of Education
Ruled in favor of forced busing to achieve racial balance in schools.
Furman v. Georgia
The U. S. Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty, as administered, constituted cruel and unusual punishment in which case
Milliken v. Bradley
1974 court ruled to end a plan that promoted desegregation in Detroit by merging inner city school districts with citys surburban districts. Ruling was a severe blow to activists hoping to continue the process of desegregation in neighborhood schools.
Bakke v Board of Regents of California
Uphold the principle of affirmitive action.
Stone v. Powell
When the court agreed to certain limits on the right of a defendant to appeal a state conviction to the federal judiciary.
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment while prices rise and cause inflation.
Committee for the Re-Election of the President
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down. The break-in was called Watergate.
Established a senator investigating committee. John Dean, however, a member of the counsel to the president, leveled allegations against Nixon himself.
There was said to be tapes in the White House recording every conversation in the president's office during the period in questioning. All those invesigating the scandals sought access to the tapes; Nixon pleading "executive priviledge," refused to release them.
Harvard law professor who took Nixon to court in an effort to force him to relinquish the recordings. Nixon, now desperate, fired Cox and suffered the humiliation of watching both Attorney General Elliot Richardson and his deputy resign in protest. This "Saturday Night Massacre" made the president's predicament much worse.
Nixon's Vice President became embroiled in a scandal od his own when evidence surfaced that he had accepted bribes and kickbacks which serving as governor of Maryland and even as vice president. He eventually resigned form the government.
United States v. Richard M. Nixon
Ruled that the President must relinquish the tapes to Special prosecutor Jaworski. Days later, the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend three articles of impeachment.
In his second term, August 9, 1974; In the face of likely impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal; His successor, Gerald Ford, issued a pardon for any federal crimes Nixon may have committed while in office.