Psychology Exam 2

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________ refers to heredity and ________ refers to environmental influences.

Nature; nurture

What is one criticism of the conclusions offered by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray in The Bell Curve?

They failed to distinguish between correlation and causation.

Piaget's term for the knowledge that an object exists even when it is out of sight is ________.

object permanence

According to Thomas and Chess, a child that is very irregular in sleeping and eating, resists change, and tends to be loud is labeled a(n) ________ child.

difficult

A baby's language that consists of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations is called ________.

babbling

The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult, is called ________.

adolescence

Obedience to rules because of the fear of punishment is a characteristic of ________.

preconventional morality

A(n) ________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.

correlation

Jeremy is 17 years old. According to Erikson, his chief task will be acquiring a sense of ________.

identity

According to Erikson, an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one's sense of self, is called ________.

intimacy

What are mental categories representing activities, objects, qualities, or situations that share some common characteristics?

concepts

The tendency to perceive and approach problems in the same ways that have worked in the past is called ________.

mental set

A patient in a mental hospital exhibits disordered thinking, perceptual abnormalities, unusual emotions, and suspiciousness. This person is probably suffering from:

schizophrenia.

What problem-solving strategies don't guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?

heuristics

Which of the following is the section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere and contains the visual centers of the brain?

occipital lobe

The part of the brain located just behind the temples, containing neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, is called the ________.

temporal lobes

The area of the frontal lobe that is devoted to the production of fluent speech is ________ area.

Broca's

A loose screw on the visor causes it to drop down while Ben drives; however, he keeps forgetting to take a screwdriver out to the car to fix it. When he notices the visor drop again, he reaches into his pocket for a dime he uses to tighten the screw holding the visor. What problem-solving difficulty did Ben overcome?

functional fixedness

Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the "bad guy" used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating ________.

confirmation bias

The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we use is called ________.

semantics

Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an) ________.

unconditioned stimulus

What was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in the case of Little Albert?

a loud noise

What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?

punishment

Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again?

regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur.

Some of the simplest and most basic learning, that involves the acquisition of fairly specific patterns of behaviors in the presence of well-defined stimuli is:

conditioning

Classical is to __________ as operant is to __________.

Pavlov; Skinner

When Luke kissed Laura, her heart rate increases. Luke always wore Old Spice After Shave. Whenever Laura smelled Old Spice, her heart would race. Laura's increased heart rate when she smelled Old Spice was the:

conditioned response.

Putting on sunglasses to relieve glare is an example of which of the types of punishment and reinforcement?

negative reinforcement

Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?

phobic disorder

Bandura conducted a classic study known as the "Bobo"doll study. The term Bobo refers to ________.

the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study

Tubula Rose means ?

Blank Slate

What is the name of thick band of axons that connect the two cerebral hemispheres?

Corpus Callosum

a group that begin together and share the same experience in a study?

peer group

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