Eliminates all possible solutions, guarantees a solution, examples might be following a recipe to make brownies, trying every key on a key ring until you find the one that fits.
Using information you already know to find a solution to a problem. If you can spell cat, then you will know how to spell bat.
Sudden flashes of inspiration, hard to explain. Remember Sultan the chimp and his example of insight.
Look for a solution to a problem that confirms what you believe. If I think boys are bad, when my class is noisy, I'll think its the boys.
We constantly try the same possible solutions to a problem instead of seeing that there is another way.
We see objects as only having one use
Stereotypes, how well they represent or match the prototype. Thinking all tall people can play basketball.
Estimating the likelihood of events based on the availability in memory, saves times. Thinking the world is a dangerous place because of all the bad news on the news.
We overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments; we say we can do a project/paper and normally it takes us twice as long
The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. If I tell you taking the AP Psych exam is fun, fun, fun....you will see it as a positive.
We cling to our beliefs even if new information proves us wrong repeatedly. Thinking your girlfriend still loves you even though she went with someone else to the prom!
in spoke lang., the smallest distinctive sound unit
in language, smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word. Prefixes and suffixes are morphemes.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
@ 3-4 months, goo-goo, (Lady) ga-ga. Babies can babble sounds not in their native language.
Early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs. Want cookie. Go outside.
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think. Hopi Indians do not have a past tense, therefore they do not THINK about the past.
general intelligence (g)
A general intelligence factor that Spearmanand others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill.
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
The widely used American revision (by Terman) of Binet's original intelligence test
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
A test designed to assess what a person has learned. AP exam is an achievement test.
The extent to which a test yields consistent (same) results. SAT is reliable because after the first time you take it,you tend to have similar results.
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Developed the theory of Multiple Intelligence. Contradicts Spearman's theory.
Sir Francis Galton
Cousin of Darwin, thought intelligence was 100% genetic (and head size was an indication of intelligence).
James-Lang Theory of Emotion
Physiological changes -> "feel" emotion
Emotion and physical arousal happen at the same time.
Schachter Two Factor
My favorite theory of emotion because it rhymes. Emotion is physical arousal plus THINKING about the situation. Putting a cognitive label on what you are feeling.
General Adaptation Syndrome
Hans Selye's model for what happens to us physically during stress. Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion. I think we are nearing exhaustion now.