AP biology DNA and Protein Synthesis

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Terms and problems involving protein synthesis and inheritance.

*What is Transcription?

The process of making mRNA from DNA in the nucleus.

*What is Translation?

The process of using tRNA and mRNA to put together amino acids at the ribosome.

*What is the function of mRNA?

To bring the instructions to make a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.

*What is the function of tRNA?

Molecule that brings amino acids to the ribosome during translation.

*What is the function of rRNA?

Ribosomes are made of this molecule. Ribosomes make proteins.

*What are the three types of RNA?

messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA

*What are three differences between RNA and DNA?

RNA has ribose, RNA has uracil, RNA not a double helix

*What is an anticodon?

3 bases on tRNA molecules that are complementary to codons

*What is a codon?

3 bases on mRNA that code for an amino acid

*What are the monomers of proteins?

amino acids

*What is the complementary DNA strand for the DNA sequence: AGG?

TCC

*What is the complementary RNA sequence for the DNA seqeuence: TAC?

AUG

*How many nucleotides code for each amino acid?

Three

*What is the function of RNA polymerase?

Enzyme that makes mRNA from DNA during transcription.

*Where does transcription occur in eukaryotic cells?

In the nucleus

*Where does translation occur?

At Ribosomes in the cytoplasm or attached to the Rough ER

*What is the anticodon that would match to UAG?

AUC

*What is a purine?

Term for nucleotide bases with 2 rings.

*What is a pyrimidines

Term for nucleotide bases with 1 ring.

*Are adenine and guanine purines or pyrimidines?

purines.

*Are cytosine, uracil and thymine

pyrimidines

*sugar and phosphate

Make up the backbone of DNA or RNA.

*What is the name of the sugar in a DNA nucleotide?

Deoxyribose

*What is the name of the sugar in RNA?

Ribose

*What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide.

Sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base

*RNA base complementary to Adenine

Uracil

*What is an intron?

Pieces of mRNa that do not code for the protein. They stay in the nucleus

*What is an exon?

Pieces of mRNA that do code for the protein. These are spliced together and go to the ribosome

*What term means a Small nucleotide ribonucleoprotein that recognize introns for splicing mRNA

sNRP

*What is the TATA box?

the promoter sequence in eukaryotes

*What occurs during RNA processing?

putting a 5' guanine cap and a poly A tail on the 3' end prior to the mRNA leaving the nucleus

*What is the function of a spliceosome?

snRNPs and proteins that cut out introns from mRNA and join the adjacent exons together to make mature mRNA

*Which carbon on the sugar in a nucleotide that has an OH group?

3'

*Which carbon on the sugar in a nucleotide that has a phosphate group?

5'

*In eukaryotes, what are the proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase to start transcription?

Transcription Factors

*What is the function of Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase?

An enzyme that matches up the tRNA with the correct amino acid and catalyzes the creation of a covalent bond between them

*What is an Aminoacyl-tRNA?

A tRNA with its attached amino acid...also called a charged tRNA

*A tRNA leaves from this area on the ribosome after the amino acid it was carrying is added to the growing polypeptide chain in translation is called___________

E site (exit site)

*The area of the ribosome that holds the tRNA that is carrying the growing polypeptide chain in translation is called___________

P site (peptidyl-tRNA site

*The area on the ribosome that holds the tRNA that is carrying the next amino acid to be added to the growing polypeptide chain in translation.

A site (aminoacyl-tRNA site)

*The order that a codon goes through the E site, E site and P site of the ribosome during translation is__________

A--P--E

*What is a protein's primary structure?

The name for the structure of a protein that is the amino acid sequence without folding

*What is the job of a Chaperonin?

Helps an amino acid sequence fold into the secondary and tertiary structure correctly

*Name two post translational modifications.

Possible answers:
Addition of sugars, lipids, or phosphate groups
Removal of one or more amino acids from the amino end
Cleaving a part of the chain
Addition of a signal peptide

*The end of the growing RNA strand to which RNA polymerase can add ribonucleotides is the _________

3' end

*What does mature mRNA mean?

mRNA after splicing and processing

*Due to this phenominon, many genes can give rise ot two or more different polypeptides, depending upon which areas of the mRNA are treated as exons.

Alternative RNA splicing`

*The term for the flexible base pairing between some tRNAs and some codons. The first two positions must match, but the 3rd can be different is ____________

Wobble

*What does it mean that the genetic code is "universal"?

All organisms on earth use the same genetic code

*What is pre-mRNA?

mRNA right after transcription, before splicing and processing

*Put these words in the correct order:
protein, DNA, mRNA

DNA---mRNA--Protein

*Transcribe this DNA sequence to mRNA
ATTCCGG

UAAGGCC

*What is the anticodon for the mRNA codon CCG? Where would it be found?

GGC on a tRNA

Would a protein that will be ultimately exported from the cell likely be made on a ribosome that is free in the cytoplasm or one that is attached to ER?

Attached to ER.

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