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WHAT COUNTRIES MAKE UP CENTRAL AMERICA?

BELIZE, GUATAMALA, EL SALVADOR, HONDURAS, NICARAGUA, COSTA RICA, AND PANAMA

CENTRAL AMBERICA IS A STRIP OF LAND WITH WATER ON BOTH SIDES THAT CONNECTS TWO LARGE BODIES OF LAND. WHAT IS THIS CALLED?

AN ISTHMUS

WHAT ARE THE THREE LARGEST ISLANDS OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA?

CUBA, JAMAICA, AND HISPANIOLA

HOW WERE MANY OF THE SMALLER ISLANDS OF THE CARIBBEAN FORMED?

BY VOLCANOES

WHERE IS THE CARIBBEAN'S HIGHEST MOUNTAIN PEAK AND WHERE IS IT LOCATED?

PICO DUARTE AND IS LOCATED IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

WHY IS CENTRAL AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN SUCH A PHYSICALLY UNSTABLE PLACE TO LIVE?

THE MOVEMENT OF THE PLATES UNDER THE EARTH'S SURFACE CAUSES NATURAL DISASTERS SUCH AS EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES. (MORE THAN 80 ACTIVE VOLCANOES)

WHAT VOLCANO IS THE MOST ACTIVE?

VOLCAN DE FUEGO IN GUATEMALA

WHAT VOLCANO ERUPTED IN 1997?

THE SOUFRIERE HILLS VOLCANO ON THE ISLAND OF MONTSERRAT IN THE CARIBBEAN. NOW, ITS OFF LIMIT TO PEOPLE AND HALF POPULATION HAS MOVED AWAY.

MUDSLIDES THAT ARE CAUSED BY EARTHQUAKES ARE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS. WHY?

THE MUD AND EARTH SLIDE DOWN HILLSIDES ONTO THE TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE LOWER AREAS, DESTROYING THEM.

WHAT CITY IN EL SALVADOR HAS BEEN DESTROYED BY EARTHQUAKES AND REBUILT MANY TIMES?

SAN SALVADOR-IN 2001, AN EARTHQUAKE DESTROYED A 100,000 HOMES

WHY DOES MOST OF CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION HAVE A WET AND WARM CLIMATE?

BECAUSE ITS CLOSE TO LARGE WATER BODIES AND THE EQUATOR (CLOSER TO THE EQUATOR, HOTTER IT IS)

WHAT ARE THE WARM EAST WINDS THAT BRING RAIN TO THE REGION CALLED?

THE TRADE WINDS

WHAT ARE INTENSE STORMS THAT FORM OVER THE TROPICAL ATLANTIC OCEAN CALLED?

HURRICANES

WHAT KIND OF CLIMATE DOES THE CENTRAL AMERICAN HIGHLANDS HAVE AND WHY?

THEY HAVE A DRY SEASON AND A RAINING SEASON BECAUSE OF THE AREA'S MOUNTAINS. BLOCK TRADE WINDS.

BECAUSE OF THE LACK OF WATER ALL THE TIME, WHAT IS THE CENTRAL AMERICAN HIGHLANDS GOOD FOR?

CATTLE RANCHING

WHY DO MOST PEOPLE IN CENTRAL AMERICA LIVE IN THE CENTRAL AMERICAN HIGHLAND REGION?

BECAUSE OF THE DRY, COOL HIGHLAND CLIMATE THAT ALLOWS PEOPLE TO GROW A VARIETY OF CROPS

DUE TO THE WARM, WET WEATHER, WHAT ECOSYSTEMS COVER CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN?

TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS SUCH AS RAIN FORESTS

T OR F: DESSERTS COVER MOST OF THE AREA OF CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN.

FALSE: RAIN FORESTS COVER MOST OF THE AREA

WHAT COUNTRY HAS A RARE ECOSYSTEM CALLED CLOUD FOREST WHERE THE FOREST IS HIGHER AND COOLER THAN NORMAL WITH MOIST CLOUDS NEAR TO THE GROUND?

COSTA RICA

WHAT ARE UNDERGROUND ECOSYSTEMS THAT SURROUND THE CARIBBEAN ISLANDS CALLED?

CORAL REEFS

WHAT ARE CORAL REEFS MADE UP OF?

IT IS MADE UP OF TINY ORGANISMS (CORAL) THAT PRODUCE A SUBSTANCE SIMILAR TO LIMESTONE AS THEY GROW. A VARIETY OF TROPICAL FISH AND OTHER MARINE LIFE LIVES THERE

WHAT IS THE VARIETY OF LIVING THINGS CALLED?

BIODIVERSITY

WHAT IS THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF HURRICANES THAT THE CARIBBEAN GET EVERY YEAR?

8

WHAT SEASONS DO HURRICANES USUALLY OCCUR?

SUMMER AND EARLY FALL

WHAT DO SOME SCIENTISTS BELIEVE IS THE CAUSE OF HURRICANES BECOMING STRONGER AND MORE FREQUENT?

GLOBAL WARMING (HIGHER AIR AND SEA TEMPERTURES)

WHAT ARE TWO STRONG HURRICANES THAT CAUSED ALOT OF DAMAGE TO THE CARIBBEAN?

HURRICANE MITCH (1998)
HURRICAN IKE (2008)

T OR F: CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES HANDLE THE DAMAGES OF A HURRICANE ON THEIR OWN WITH HELP FROM ANYONE OR ANYPLACE.

FALSE: THEY OFTEN NEED HELP FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND FOREIGN AID TO REBUILD

WHY DOES CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN HAVE SUCH FEW NATURAL RESOURCES

BECAUSE OF THEIR SIZE. SMALL COUNTRIES, SMALL LAND

WHAT ARE COMMON AREAS OF WORKING IN THE RURAL AND URBAN AREA?

RURAL AREAS- FARMERS
URBAN AREAS- COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURING

T OR F: MOST COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AMERICA HAVE TO IMPORT OIL.

TRUE

PLANTATIONS (LARGE COMMERCIAL FARMS) GROW CASH CROPS? WHAT ARE CASH CROPS AND SOME EXAMPLES?

CASH CROPS ARE USUALLY SOLD TO OTHER COUNTRIES RATHER THAN SOLD LOCALLY. EXAMPLES: SUGAR AND COFFEE

WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS CAN CATTLE RANCHING CAUSE?

EROSION-THE REMOVAL OF SOIL BY WIND OR WATER

WHAT IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LAND USES IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN?

TOURISM-FAST GROWING PART OF CARIBBEAN ECONOMY

WHAT IS TOURISM?

THE BUSINESS OF PROVIDING FOOD, PLACES TO STAY, AND OTHER SERVICES TO VISITORS FROM OTHER PLACES.

WHO MAKES MOST OF THE MONEY OFF OF TOURISM?

FOREIGN COMPANIES AND INVESTORS - ACTUAL WORKERS MAKE VERY LITTLE

WHAT IS A DOWNSIDE OF TOURISM TO CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN?

WATER SHORTAGES (TOO MANY PEOPLE, NOT ENOUGH WATER) HARDER ON LOCALS

HOW DO PESTICIDES HARM THE ENVIRONMENT?

IT IS USED TO KEEP BUGS OFF CROPS, BUT RAIN CAN WASH IT OFF THE CROPS AND LET IT TRAVEL INTO STREAMS (RUNOFF) WHICH CAN HARM US AND OTHER ANIMALS

WHAT IS DEFORESTATION?

THE CLEARING OF A LARGE NUMBER OF TREES

WHAT HAS LEAD TO DEFORESTATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA?

RANCHING, FARMING, AND THE NEED FOR WOOD

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE LAND WHEN THE TREE ROOTS ARE PULLED FROM THE GROUND?

THE SOIL ERODES AND CANNOT ABSORB MOISTURE. WITHOUT MOISTURE, LAND BECOMES USELESS FOR FARMING

WHAT COUNTRY HAS LOST THE MOST FORESTS FROM DEFORESTATION AND WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS?

HAITI-HAS TROUBLE PRODUCING ENOUGH FOOD TO FEEDS ITS PEOPLE

WHAT IS THE HUMAN-MADE TRADE ROUTE BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC AND THE PACIFIC OCEANS CALLED?

PANAMA CANAL

CHAPTER 4

SECTION 2

AROUND 1000 BC WHAT NATIVE AMERICAN GROUP BEGAN SETTLING AROUND WHAT IS NOW GUATEMALA?

THE MAYANS

WHAT WERE SOME OF THE THINGS THAT THE MAYANS WERE SKILLED AT?

MATH, ARCHITECTURE, ASTRONOMY, WEAVING, AND SCULPTURE

WHAT WERE ONE OF THE CROPS THE MAYANS GREW?

MAIZE

WHAT DID THE MAYANS DEVELOP TO USE IN THEIR CIVILIZATION?

ACCURATE CALANDAR
SYSTEM OF WRITING USING SYMBOLS

HOW WAS THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION ORGANIZED?

INTO CITY-STATES EACH WITH ITS OWN RULER

WHAT HELPED UNITE THESE CITY-STATES

TRADE

WHAT DID EACH CITY-STATE CONTAIN AND WHAT WAS IT USED FOR?

LARGE PYRAMID-SHAPED TEMPLES USED TO WORSHIP THEIR GODS

WHAT CAUSED THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION TO DECLINE AROUND 900 AD?

WAR, CROP FAILURE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

IN THE CARIBBEAN WHAT TWO MAIN GROUPS OF PEOPLE STARTED SETTLINGS THERE?

ARAWAK AND THE CARIB

HOW DID THE ARAWAK AND THE CARIB SURVIVE?

GREW A VARIETY OF PLANTS FOR FOOD, GATHERED FRUIT, AND HARVESTED SHELLFISH FROM THE SEA

IN 1492, COLUMBUS SAILED ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN AND LANDED IN WHICH CARIBBEAN ISLAND?

BAHAMAS-PEOPLE WITH HIM AND AFTER STARED COLONIZING THE AREA KILLING OR ENSLAVING MILLIONS OF NATIVE AMERICANS

WHAT WERE THE EARLY SPANISH EXPLORERS IN SEARCH OF?

GOLD AND OTHER RICHES
SECONDLY THEY WANTED TO CONVERT NATIVES TO CHRISTIANITY

BY EARLY 1500S, THE SPANISH FORM A COLONY IN WHAT IS NOW PANAMA? WHAT IS A COLONY?

A GROUP OF PEOPLE LIVING IN A NEW TERRITORY WITH TIES TO A DISTANT COUNTRY

WHAT WAS THE SPANISH COLONY IN PANAMA CALLED?

KINGDOM OF GUATAMALA

WHAT WERE THE LEADERS WHO RULED THE SPANISH COLONIES CALLED?

VICEROYS

WHAT WAS THE SYSTEM SET UP BY THE GOVERNMENT THAT ALLOWED OFFICIALS TO TAX NATIVES OR FORCE THEM TO WORK IN RETURN FOR TEACHING THESE NATIVES CHRISTIANITY?

ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM

DID THE ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM WORK?

NO IT BASICALLY TURNED NATIVES INTO SLAVES WITHOUT CHRISTIAN TEACHING

WHAT ARE HACIENDAS?

HUGH FARMS OR RANCHES OWNED BY THE SPANISH

WHEN THE MANY OF THE NATIVE SLAVES DIED FROM DISEASE OR ABUSE, WHAT DID THE SPANISH LANDOWNERS DO TO KEEP THEIR LAND BEING WORKED ON?

IMPORTED SLAVES FROM AFRICA

WHICH CASH CROP IN THE CARIBBEAN REQUIRED HUGE AMOUNTS OF LAND AND LABOR?

SUGAR CANE-AFRICAN SLAVES WERE USED AND LANDOWNERS BECAME VERY WEALTHY

IN 1804, WHAT COUNTRY GOT IT INDEPENDENCE FROM FRANCE AFTER YEARS OF FIGHTING?

HAITI

WHAT IS INDEPENDENCE?

THE RIGHT TO RULE ONESELF

WHO WAS THE LEADER OF THE REVOLT, THAT LED TO HAITI'S INDEPENDENCE?

TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE (AN ENSLAVED MAN)

WHAT YEAR DID THE KINGDOM OF GUATAMALA DECLARE ITS INDEPENENCE FROM SPAIN?

1821

AFTER INDEPENDENCE, MANY CENTRAL AMERICAN COUNTRIES LOOKED FOR FOREIGN HELP TO BUILD THEIR ECONOMIES. WHAT COUNTRY DID THESE COUNTRIES COME TO DEPEND ON A LOT?

UNITED STATES

WHAT WERE SOME OF THE THINGS THAT THE USA DID IN THE CARIBBEAN?

REBUILT AND CONTROL OF INDUSTIES SUCH AS SUGAR, COFFEE, AND BANANAS
TOOK OVER LAND AND BUILT LARGE PLANTATIONS
BUILT THE PANAMA CANAL

WHAT TYPE OF GOVERNMENTS DID CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN HAVE DURING THE 1900s?

DICTATORSHIPS

WHAT ARE DICTATORSHIPS?

GOVERMENTS CONTROLLED BY A SINGLE LEADER

WHAT DICTATOR IN CUBA LIMITED POLITICAL FREEDOM, BUT DEVELOPED CUBA'S ECONOMY?

FULGENCIO BATISTA

WHO LED A COMMUNIST REVOLUTION IN CUBA, AND BECAME ITS DICTATOR IN 1959?

FIDEL CASTRO

WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF CASTRO BECOMING THE DICTATOR OF CUBA?

HE TOOK OVER USA OWNED PROPERTY AND THE UNITED STATES ENDED ALL RELATIONS WITH CUBA.

CHAPTER 4

SECTION 3

WHY IS THERE SUCH A DIVERSE SOCIETY IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN?

BECAUSE OF ALL THE DIFFERENT ETHINIC GROUPS THAT HAVE LIVED IN THE REGION OVER THE YEARS.
NATIVES, SPANISH, FRENCH, ENGLISH, AFRICANS, DANISH

WHAT IS THE LARGEST ETHNIC GROUP IN THE CARIBBEAN AND WHY?

THEY ARE OF AFRICAN DECENT BECAUSE OF ALL THE AFRICAN SLAVES THAT WERE BROUGHT OVER FROM AFRICA.

WHAT PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE CARIBBEAN ARE ROMAN CATHOLIC?

90%

WHAT IS THE BIG RELIGIOUS FESTIVAL CELEBRATED IN LATE WINTER CALLED?

CARNIVAL-PARADES WITH BRIGHT COSTUMES, MUSIC, AND DANCING.

WHAT IS THE POPULAR RELIGION IN CUBA THAT COMBINES ROMAN CATHOLIC AND WEST AFRICAN BELIEFS?

SANTERIA

WHAT IS THE LARGEST ETHNIC GROUP IN CENTRAL AMERICA?

MESTIZOES-PEOPLE WITH SPANISH BLOOD AND NATIVE BLOOD IN THEIR ANCESTORS

WHAT IS THE LARGEST ETHNIC GROUP IN GUATAMALA AND WHAT LANGUAGE DO THEY SPEAK?

MAYAN
QUECHUA

T OR F: MOST PEOPLE IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN LIVE IN POVERTY.

TRUE- THEY GO LOOKING FOR WORK IN OTHER COUNTRIES SUCH AS THE UNITED STATES

WHAT IS THE SPREAD OF PEOPLE FROM ONE PLACE OR COUNTRIES TO MANY OTHER PLACES OR COUNTRIES CALLED?

DIASPORA

WHAT DO THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE GONE TO OTHER COUNTRIES TO WORK DO WITH MOST OF THE MONEY THEY MAKE?

SEND IT HOME TO THEIR FAMILIES

WHAT IS CULTURAL DIFFUSION?

THE SPREAD OF CULTURAL TRAITS FROM ONE COUNTRY TO ANOTHER COUNTRY. EXAMPLE: HISPANIC FOOD IN THE UNTIED STATES

WHAT ARE MOST OF THE GOVERNMENTS IN CENTRAL AMERICA?

PRESIDENTIAL DEMOCRACIES-PRESIDENT IS THE HEAD OF THE GOVERNMENT

WHAT ARE MOST OF THE GOVERNMENTS IN THE CARIBBEAN?

DEMOCRACIES WITH PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMS- A PRIME MINISTER IS CHOSEN FROM THE PARLIMENT

WHAT COUNTRY HAS THE MOST STABLE DEMOCRACY IN THE CARIBBEAN?

COSTA RICA

WHAT LACK OF SOCIAL SERVICES LEADS TO WIDESPREAD ANGER AND VIOLENCE, LEAVING THE DEMOCRACIES TO BE UNSTABLE?

HEALTHCARE AND EDUCATION

HOW IS CUBA'S GOVERNMENT DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER CARIBBEAN COUNTRY'S GOVERNMENTS?

IT HAS A DICTATOR AND IS NOT A DEMOCRACY

WHAT IS THE ONLY OFFICIAL POLITICAL PARTY OF CUBA?

COMMUNIST PARTY

T OR F: CUBANS GET TO VOTE FOR THE LEADER OF THEIR COUNTRY.

FALSE

WHAT SOCIAL SERVICES DO CUBANS GET FOR PRACTICALLY FREE?

HEALTHCARE AND COLLEGE

WHAT IS ONE OF THE MAJOR ECONOMIC GOALS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN?

TO INCREASE CAPITAL INVESTMENT-INVESTMENT IN FACTORIES AND TECHNOLOGY

WHAT ARE TWO FREE TRADE ASSOCIATIONS IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN?

CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY (CARICOM)
CENTRAL AMERICA-DOMINICAN REPUBLIC-UNITED STATES FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION (CAFTA-DR)

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF FREE TRADE?

LOW TARRIFFS FOR EXPORTS
LOW TAXES ENCOURAGES FOREIGN BUSINESS TO BUILD FACTORIES HERE AND CREATING JOBS FOR LOCALS

WHAT ARE THE DOWNFALLS OF FREE TRADE?

IT BENEFITS THE WEALTHY COUNTRIES MORE THEN THE POOR COUNTRIES.
WORKERS NOT GETTING PAID FAIR WAGES

HOW DOES FREE TRADE AFFECT FARMING?

COMMERCIAL FARMS USE PESTICIDES THAT HURTS THE ENVIRONMENT.
LOCAL FARMERS DON'T OWN THEY CROPS THEY GROW AND CAN'T PROFIT FROM IT.

WHAT IS MICROCREDIT?

A SMALL LOAN (FARMER SOMETIMES GET THIS TO START THEIR OWN FARMS)

T OR F: A FEW COUNTRIES SUCH AS GUATAMALA, HAS PASSED LAWS THAT ALLOW THEM TO TAKE SOME LAND FROM POWERFUL LANDOWNERS AND DIVIDE IT AMONST POOR FARMERS.

TRUE

WHAT IS CALLED WHEN A BUNCH OF FARMERS PUT THEIR LANDS TOGETHER AND SHARE THE PROFITS OF THEIR BUSINESS?

COOPERATIVES

WHAT IS A FORM OF TOURISM THAT FOCUSES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SEEKS TO MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?

ECOTOURISM

WHAT ARE SOME ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN ECOTOURISM?

EXPLORING NATURE ON FOOT OR HORSEBACK
SLEEPING IN HUTS OR CABINS
EATING LOCAL FOOD

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