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The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.

shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea

The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.

significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius

Arteriole blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?

falling blood volume

Which of the following is true about veins?

Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.

Select the correct statement about blood flow.

Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output.

A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________.

decreased size of the heart muscle

Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.

the dural sinus reflex

Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.

tunica intima

Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?

170/96 in a 50-year-old man

If blood pressure is almost normal in a person who has lost blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?

not necessarily

Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________.


The velocity of blood flow is ________.

slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest

A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________.

right side of the head and neck and right upper arm

The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.

muscular arteries

Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate?

the vessel selected to palpate

Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?

right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium

The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarilyoperate via all but which of the following?

altering blood volume

Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.


Peripheral resistance ________.

increases as blood viscosity increases

In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure ________.

is the same as capillary blood pressure

Normal average blood pressure for a newborn baby is ________.


Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?


Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?

hydrostatic and osmotic pressure

Fenestrated capillaries ________.

are not found in the brain

Brain blood flow autoregulation ________.

is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist

The term ductus venosus refers to ________.

a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.


What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?

ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis

Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ________.

intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms

Aldosterone will ________.

promote an increase in blood pressure

The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

changes in arterial pressure

Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?

emotional state

Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?

renal regulation

Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?

tunica intima

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

tunica media

Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?

a local increase in histamine

Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable?

Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________.

hepatic portal circulation

The hepatic portal vein ________.

carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver

Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.

Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

Blood flow to the skin ________.

increases when environmental temperature rises

Which statement best describes arteries?

All carry blood away from the heart.

Which of the choices below does not involve tissue perfusion?

blood clotting

Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

nitric acid

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