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Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?

Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.

0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.

secrete surfactant

Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?

cardiac notch

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.

inspiratory reserve

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.

as the initiator of the cough reflex

Inspiratory capacity is ________.

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

The larynx contains ________.

the thyroid cartilage

Which of the following is not possible?

Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.

ciliated mucous lining in the nose

Gas emboli may occur because a ________.

diver holds his breath upon ascent

Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?

The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

Which of the choices below is not a functional process performed by the respiratory system?

transport of respiratory gases

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

vital capacity

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?

emphysema

A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________.

28 weeks

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?

aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?

rising blood pressure

Which center is located in the pons?

pontine respirator group (PRG)

The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.

surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:

A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.

Boyle's law

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?

More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?

attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.

force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?

decrease in lactic acid levels

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.

only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?

the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?

number of red blood cells

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.

concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?

the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

Tidal volume is air ________.

exchanged during normal breathing

Which of the following determines lung compliance?

alveolar surface tension

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

alveoli

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

diffusion

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

increase of carbon dioxide

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?

cartilage rings

Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?

Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.

Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

blood pH adjustment

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?

Kaposi's sarcoma

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