Major Human Endocrine Glands and Some of Their Hormones

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Oxytocin

Peptide, secreted from posterior pituitary gland (releases neurohormones made in hypothalamus), stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells, regulated by nervous system

Antidiuretic hormone

Peptide, secreted from posterior pituitary gland (releases neurohormones made in hypothalamus), promotes retention of water by kidneys, regulated by water/salt balance

Growth hormone

Protein, secreted from anterior pituitary gland, stimulates growth (especially bones) and metabolic functions, regulated by hypothalamic hormones

Prolactin

Protein, secreted from anterior pituitary gland, stimulates milk production and secretion, regulated by hypothalamic hormones

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Glycoprotein, secreted from anterior pituitary gland, stimulates production of ova and sperm, regulated by hypothalamic hormones

Luteinizing hormone

Glycoprotein, secreted by anterior pituitary gland, stimulates ovaries and testes, regulated by hypothalamic hormones

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Glycoprotein, secreted by anterior pituitary gland, stimulates thyroid gland, regulated by hypothalamic hormones

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Peptide, secreted by anterior pituitary gland, stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids, regulated by hypothalamic hormones

T3 and T4

Amines, secreted by thyroid gland, stimulate and maintain metabolic processes, regulated by TSH

Calcitonin

Peptide, secreted by thyroid gland, lowers blood calcium level, regulated by calcium in blood

Parathyroid hormone

Peptide, secreted by parathyroid glands, raises blood calcium level, regulated by calcium in blood

Insulin

Protein, secreted by pancreas, lowers blood glucose level, regulated by glucose in blood

Glucagon

Protein, secreted by pancreas, raises blood glucose level, regulated by glucose in blood

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Amines, secreted by adrenal medulla, raises blood glucose level, increases metabolic activities, constrict certain blood vessels, regulated by nervous system

Glucocorticoids

Steroids, secreted by adrenal cortex, raises blood glucose level, regulated by ACTH

Mineralcorticoids

Steroids, secreted by adrenal cortex, promotes reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+ in kidneys, regulated by K+ in blood/ angiotensin II

Androgens

Steroids, released by testes, support sperm formation, promote development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics, regulated by FSH and LH

Estrogens

Steroids, released by ovaries, stimulate uterine lining growth, promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics, regulated by FSH and LH

Progestins

Steroids, released by ovaries, promote uterine lining growth, regulated by FSH And LH

Melatonin

Amine, released by pineal gland, involved in biological rhythms, regulated by light/dark cycles

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