Ch. 14 Reproductive sys.

191 terms by shero16 

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genitalia

organs of reproduction& associated structures

perineum

external surface between pubic symphysis and the coccyx (in males & females)

male perineum

from scrotum to anus

female perineum

from vaginal orifice to anus

external male genitalia

penis & scrotum which contain testicles

scrotum

saclike structure that surrounds, protects testicles

testicles (orch/o)

'testes' two small egg shaped glands, produce the sperm.

epididymis

a coiled tube at upper part of each testicle (forms vas deferens)

penis

'penile' / 'phallic'

glans penis

'head of the penis' tip

foreskin

double layered fold, mucous membrane, that covers & protects glans penis

vas deferens

long, narrow continuations of each epididymis

prostate gland

under bladder surrounds end of the urethra

urethra

passes through penis to outside fo body > in male both reproductive & urinary system

urologist

physician > disorders of the urinary sys. of females and genitourinary sys. of males

Balanitis

inflamm. of glans penis >cause is poor hygene in men who have not had circumcision

Impotence

erectile dysfunction> inability of male to achieve/maintain an erection

Premature ejaculation

male reaches climax too soon

Andropause

'male menopause' marked by decrease of male hormone testosterone

Anorchism (orch=testicle)

absence of one or both testicles

Cryptorchidism

'undescended testicle' fail to descend in position in scrotum

Epididymitis

inflamm of epididymis caused by spread of infection from urethra or bladder

hydrocele

fluid filled sac in scrotum along spermatic cord

Priapism

a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more, not due to sexual excitement

spermatocele

a cyst that develops in epididymis

testicular cancer

most common in American males b/w 15-34. Treatable if diagnosed early

testicular pain

'orchalgia' pain in testicle(s)

testicular torsion

sharp pain in scrotum caused by twisting of vas deferens (torsion=twisting)

testitis

'orchitis' inflamm. of testicle(s)

varicocele

knot of varicose veins in one side of scrotum

normal sperm count

20-120 million or more per milliliter

Azoospermia

absence of sperm in semen

low sperm count

'oligospermia' below 20 million/ml

testicular self examination

self-help step to detect for lumps, swelling or changes in testicles

circumcision

surgical removal of foreskin of penis

orchidectomy

'orchiectomy' surgical removal of one or both testicles

orchiopexy

endoscopic surgery to move undescended testicle into normal position

varicocelectomy

removal of part of enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele.

sterilization

any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction

castration

'bilateral orchidectomy' surgical removal or destruction of both testicles

vasectomy

male sterilization when small portion of vas deferens is surgically removed

vasovasostomy

'vasectomy reversal' procedure to restore fertility vasectomized male

sexually transmitted diseases (STD's)

'venereal diseases' infections that affect males & females

chlamydia

caused by bacterium most commonly reported STD in US, highly contagious requires antibiotics

Genital herpes

caused by herpes simplex virus type 2, itch/burn before lesions appear

Genital warts

caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) highly contagious

human papilloma virus

vaccine available to prevent the spread of this disease.

Gonorrhea

highly contagious caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae

human immunodefficiency virus (HIV)

transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids through sexual intercourse

Syphilis

caused by bacterium can be detected through VDRL -venereal disease research lab.-blood test

trichomoniasis

'trich' caused by protozoan parasite, frothy, yellow-green discharge in women can spread to men.

labia majora

vaginal lips that protect the external genetalia

clitoris

organ of sensitive erectile tissue

Bartholin's glands

produce mucus to lubricate vagina, on either side of vag. orifice

vaginal orifice

exterior opening of vagina

hymen

mucous membrane that partially covers opening before woman have intercourse.

mammary glands

'lactiferous glands' milk-producing glands develop during puberty

lactiferous ducts

'milk ducts' carry milk from mammary glands to nipple.

ovaries

'oophor/o' pair of almond shaped orogans on sides of uterus

follicle

fluid filed sac containing single ovum (egg)

ova

'eggs' female gametes

fallopian tubes

'uterine tubes' from upper end of uterus to point near an ovary

uterus

'womb' pear shaped musclular organ --hyster/o metr/o

fundus

bulging, rounded part above entrance of fallopian tubes

corpus

body fo uterus the middle portion

cervix

'cervix uteri' lower, narrow protion that extends into vagina

perimetrium

tough, membranous outer layer (of uterus)

myometrium

muscular middle layer

endometrium

inner layer of uterus consists of epithelial mucosa

vagina

muscular tube w/ mucosa extends from cervix to outside of body

menstruation

'menses' periodic discharge of endometrial lining & unfertilized egg

menarche

beginning of the menstrual function, begins after menstruation during puberty

Menopause

termination of menstrual function

perimenopause

to designate transition phase between menstrual periods and no periods.

gynecologist

physician> disorders of female reproductive system

obstetrician

provides medical care during pregnancy

neonatologist

physician treats disorders of newborn

pediatrician

physicain treats, disorders/diseases of children

Anovulation

absence of ovulation due to stress, nutrition

Oophoritis

inflamm of an ovary

Ovarian cancer

originates w/ in cells of ovaries

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

inflamm of female reproductive organs not associated with surgery or pregnancy

Polycystic ovary syndrome

hormonal imbalance ovaries are enlarged by cysts

Salpingitis

inflamm of fallopian tube

Endometriosis

patches of endometrial tissue escape uterus and become attached to structures in pelvic cavity.

Uterine cancer

cancerous growth on lining of the uterus

Uterine fibroid

'myoma' a benign tumor of tissue in wall of uterus

uterine prolapse

'pelvic floor hernia' condition in which uterus slides from normal position in pelvic cavity and sags into vagina

Cervical cancer

second most common cancer in woman --detected by Pap tests

Cervical dysplasia

'precancerous lesions' growth of cells in cervix can be detected by Pap smear.

Cervicitis

inflam of cervix

Endocervicitis

inflamm of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix

Colporrhexis

tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall

Leukorrhea

whitish mucus discharge from uterus and vagina

Vaginal candidiasis

yeast infection

Vaginitis

inflamm of the linging of the vagina

Pruritus vulvae

itching of the external female genitalia

Vulvodynia

a syndrome of unknown cause of chronic burning, pain during sex, stinging/itching of valvula

fibroadenoma

round, firm, mass formed from excess growth of tissue in breasts. Benign

Fibrocystic breast disease

presence of single or multiple benign cysts in breasts

Galactorrhea

production of breast milk in woman who is not breast feeding

Mastalgia

pain in breast

Mastitis

breast infection caused by bacteria during breastfeeding

Amenorrhea

absencee of menstrual periods for 3 or more months

Dysmenorrhea

cramps during a menstrual period

Hypermenorrhea

excessive ammount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days

Hypomenorrhea

small amout of menstrual flow during period

Menometrorrhagia

uterine bleeding at both usual time of period and irregular intervals

Oligomenorrhea

infrequent or light periods

Polymenorrhea

menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal

Premature menopause

ovaries cease functioning before age 40

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

woman get symptoms 2 weeks before peiod.

Coldposcopy

direct visual exam of cervix and vagina

endometrial biopsy

tissue from the lining of uterus is removed for microscope exam.

Hysterosalpingography

radiographic examination

Hysteroscopy

direct visual exam of uterus and fallopian tubes

Papanicolaou test

'Pap smear' indicates cervical cancer

Ultrasound

laparoscopy used to diagnose disorders of reprorductive sys

contraceptive

lessen likelihood of pregnancy ex. condoms

intrauterine device

plastic contraceptive inserted through cervix into uterus

Hormone replacement therapy

use of female estrogen to replace those the body no longer produces.

ovariectomy

'oophorectomy' surgical removal of ovaries

salpingectomy

removal of fallopian tube(s)

salpingo-oophorectomy

removal of a fallopian tube and ovary

Conization

'cone biopsy' surgical removal of cone-shaped tissue from cervix

Colporrhaphy

surgical suturing of tear in vagina

Dilation and curettage

procedure, cervix is dilated & endometrium of uterus is scraped away.

myomectomy

removal of uterine fibroids

hysterectomy

removal of the uterus

total hysterectomy

uterus & cervix are removed through abdomen or vagina

radical hysterectomy

procedure to treat cancer, removal of the ovaries & fallopian tubes, uterus & cervix plus nearby lymph nodes

mammoplasty

operation on breasts

breast augmentation

mammoplasty to make breast size larger

mastopexy

mammoplasty to elevate sagging breasts

Ovulation

release of mature egg from follicle surface of ovary

coitus

'copulation' or 'sexual intercourse' male ejaculates into female vagina

conception

when sperm penetrates and fertilizes the ovum

zygote

single cell from conception

embryo

8th week of pregnancy

fetus

9th week of pregnancy

Fraternal twins

fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells

Identical twins

fertilization of a single egg cell by a sperm that divides to form two embryos

multiples

birth of more than two infants

chorion

thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo

placenta

temporary organ that forms w/ in the uterus to allow exchange of nutrients/oxygen between mother and fetus

amniotic sac (bag of waters)

inner membrane surrounds embryo in uterus

Amnionic fluid

liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements

umbilical cord

tube that carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients from placenta to child.

navel

belly button where umbilical cord was attached

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