When assessing a patient with a head injury, you note the presence of thin, bloody fluid draining from his right ear. This indicates:
rupture of the tympanic membrane following diffuse impact to the head
The body's functions that occur without conscious effort are regulated by the _________ nervous system.
A female patient with a suspected spinal injury is breathing with a marked reduction in tidal volume. The MOST appropriate airway management for her includes:
assisting ventilations at an age-appropriate rate.
Common signs of a skull fracture include all of the following, EXCEPT:
superficial scalp lacerations
Coordination of balance and body movement is controlled by the
After your partner assumes manual in-line stabilization of the patient's head, you should:
assess distal neurovascular status in the extremities
The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the:
the brain and spinal cord
The MOST important treatment for patients with a head injury, regardless of severity, is to:
establish an adequate airway
The MOST reliable sign of a head injury is:
decreased level of consciousness
The tough, fibrous outer meningeal layer is called the:
Which of the following sets of vital signs depicts Cushing's triad?
. blood pressure, 190/110 mm Hg; pulse, 55 beats/min; respirations, 30 breaths/min
The effectiveness of positive-pressure ventilations when treating a head-injured patient can ONLY be determined by:
immediate reassessment following the intervention
Moderate elevation in intracranial pressure with middle brain stem involvement is characterized by:
sluggishly reactive pupils, widened pulse pressure, bradycardia, and posturing
Following a head injury, a 20-year-old female opens her eyes spontaneously, is confused, and obeys your commands to move her extremities. You should assign her a GCS score of:
During your primary assessment of a 19-year-old unconscious male who experienced severe head trauma, you note that his respirations are rapid, irregular, and shallow. He has bloody secretions draining from his mouth and nose. You should:
suction his oropharynx for up to 15 seconds
The _________ is the best-protected part of the CNS and controls the functions of the cardiac and respiratory systems.
It would be MOST appropriate to perform a focused secondary assessment on a patient who:
fainted and fell to the ground from a standing position
Distraction injuries of the spine are MOST commonly the result of:
Rapid deceleration of the head, such as when it impacts the windshield, causes:
compression injuries or bruising to the anterior portion of the brain and stretching or tearing to the posterior portion of the brain
When immobilizing a patient on a long backboard, you should:
ensure that you secure the torso before securing the head
Which of the following head injuries would cause the patient's condition to deteriorate MOST rapidly?
When opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal injury, you should use the:
jaw thrust maneuver
An epidural hematoma is MOST accurately defined as
bleeding between the skull and dura mater
The meninges, along with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates in between each meningeal layer, function by:
acting as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord.
When activated, the sympathetic nervous system produces all of the following effects, EXCEPT:
Any unresponsive trauma patient should be assumed to have:
an accompanying spinal injury
A reflex arc occurs when:
a sensory nerve detects an irritating stimulus and bypasses the brain by sending a direct message to the motor nerve.
Which of the following nerves allow sensory and motor impulses to be sent from one nerve directly to another?
A tight-fitting motorcycle helmet should be left in place unless
it interferes with your assessment of the airway.
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess:
eye opening, verbal response, and motor response
When immobilizing a trauma patient's spine, the EMT manually stabilizing the head should not let go until:
the patient has been completely secured to the backboard.
When placing a patient onto a long backboard, the EMT at the patient's _________ is in charge of all patient movements.
A patient with a head injury presents with abnormal flexion of his extremities. What numeric value should you assign to him for motor response?
Which of the following statements regarding cervical collars is correct?
A cervical collar is used in addition to, not instead of, manual immobilization
The five sections of the spinal column, in descending order, are the:
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
The major mass of the brain is called the:
An indicator of an expanding intracranial hematoma or rapid brain swelling is:
a rapid deterioration of neurologic signs
The hormone responsible for the actions of the sympathetic nervous system is:
A patient who cannot remember the events that preceded his or her head injury is experiencing:
When immobilizing a child on a long backboard, you should:
place padding under the childs shoulders as needed
When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated:
heart rate decreases and blood vessels dilate
A short backboard or vest-style immobilization device is indicated for patients who:
are in a sitting position and are clinically stable
The ideal procedure for moving an injured patient from the ground to a backboard is:
four person log roll
The __________ nervous system consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
Which of the following statements regarding helmet removal is MOST correct?
Padding should be placed under the occiput as the helmet is removed
The MOST common and serious complication of a significant head injury is:
You are assessing a 27-year-old female who was ejected from her car when it struck a utility pole at a high rate of speed. She is unconscious and has slow, irregular breathing. Her blood pressure is 180/90 mm Hg and her pulse rate is 50 beats/min and bounding. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
spinal immobilization, assisted ventilation with oxygen, and rapid transport.
A football player experienced a possible spinal injury when he was tackled. He is conscious and alert, but tells you that he is having trouble breathing. His respirations are 28 breaths/min and labored. He is still wearing his helmet. You should:
carefully remove the helmet, immobilize his spine, and administer oxygen.
A young male was assaulted and is found unconscious. Your assessment reveals bruising around his eyes and blood-tinged fluid draining from his nose. You should be MOST suspicious for a/an:
After removing a motorcycle helmet, you should:
maintain manual stabilization of the head and apply a cervical collar
Assessing an unconscious trauma patient's airway begins by:
manually stabilizing his or her head
You should be MOST suspicious that a patient has experienced a significant head injury if his or her pulse is:
When assessing a conscious patient with an MOI that suggests spinal injury, you should:
determine if the strength in all extremities is equal
When a patient experiences a severe spinal injury, he or she:
may lose sensation below the level of injury
When controlling bleeding from a scalp laceration with a suspected underlying skull fracture, you should:
avoid excessive pressure when applying the bandage.
During your initial assessment of a semiconscious 30-year-old female with closed head trauma, you note that she has slow, shallow breathing and a slow, bounding pulse. As your partner maintains manual in-line stabilization of her head, you should:
instruct him to assist ventilations as you perform a rapid trauma assessment.
If you do not have the appropriate size cervical collar, you should:
use rolled towels to immobilize the patients head
A 45-year-old male was working on his roof when he fell approximately 12 feet, landing on his feet. He is conscious and alert and complains of an "ache" in his lower back. He is breathing adequately and has stable vital signs. You should:
perform a focused physical exam and immobilize his spine.
Bleeding within the brain parenchyma (tissue) is MOST appropriately called a/an:
A temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without physical damage to the brain MOST accurately describes a/an:
What part of the nervous system controls the body's voluntary activities?
A 30-year-old male experienced closed head trauma when he crashed his motorcycle; he was not wearing a helmet. As you approach the patient, you can hear snoring respirations and can see blood draining from his mouth. You should:
manually stabilize his head and perform a jaw-thrust maneuver.