Chapter 27 Reproductive System

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Why are the male testes located in the scrotum outside the body?

Immature sperm are temperature sensitive

Sperm is stored in the __________.

epididymis

Genetic variation of individual chromosomes occurs during __________.

prophase I

The release of __________ encourages interstitial endocrine cells to release __________.

luteinizing hormone; testosterone

What is the function of the blood testis barrier?

to prevent activation of the immune system of the male against the developing sperm

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the vagina of an adult female?

The pH of the adult vagina is alkaline

A surge in __________ directly triggers ovulation

luteinizing hormone (LH)

Which layer of the uterus is the site for implantation of a fertilized egg?

stratum functionalis of the endometrium

Why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm formed from one stem cell?

The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus.

What is the role of the corpus luteum?

to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first months of pregnancy

During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle __________.

the endometrium prepares for implantation

Although effective in treating erectile dysfunction, Viagra has the side effect of reducing systemic blood pressure by causing ______.

relaxation of muscle tissue in arteries

A varicocele may hinder blood flow through the pampiniform venous plexus; the reduced venous drainage and the resulting elevated testicular temperature may be caused by ______.

defective venous valves in the testis

Which of the following conditions might contribute to an increased probability of having an ectopic pregnancy?

decreased number of cilia in the uterine tubes

T/F: Sperm are ejaculated from the corpora cavernosa of the penis.

False

T/F: A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environmental temperature is the cremaster

True

T/F: The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone.

False

T/F: The male urethra serves the urinary system only.

False

T/F: The testis is divided into seminiferous tubules which contain the lobules that produce sperm and the ejaculatory duct that allows the sperm to be ejected from the body.

False

T/F: When it is cold, the scrotum is pulled away from the body.

False

T/F: The prostate atrophies as a man ages, and it usually causes no health problems.

False

T/F: It is necessary for the testes to be kept below body temperature for abundant, viable sperm formation.

True

Prostate cancer is _______.

sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.

interstitial endocrine cells

Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

the seminal glands

The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.

peristaltic contractions

T/F: The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin.

False

T/F: The secretions of the bulbo-urethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse

True

T/F: The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase

False

T/F: Failure to attain erection is called erectile dysfunction

True

T/F: A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.

False

T/F: The amount of testosterone and sperm produced by the testes is dependent on the influence of FSH alone.

False

A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.

decreased testosterone secretion

Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?

Each spermatid forms two sperm.

Spermatogenesis ________.

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

Why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?

The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.

Which of the choices below is not a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis?
A) interstitial endocrine cells
B) hypothalamus
C) thalamus
D) anterior pituitary gland

thalamus

Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?

inhibin

Erection of the penis results from ________.

a parasympathetic reflex

Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?

stimulates mammary gland development

Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?

They are sluggish in an alkaline environment

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.

mitosis

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.

they have the same number of chromosomes

Why is the blood testis barrier important?

because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system

The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.

the bulbospongiosus muscles

T/F: Gametes are produced by meiosis.

True

Enzymes that allow sperm to penetrate the egg are located in the __________ of the sperm cell.

acrosome

The number of chromosomes in a human gamete is __________; this is referred to as the __________ chromosome number.

23; haploid

T/F: The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium

True

T/F: The Pap smear is a test to detect cancerous changes in cells of the cervix.

True

T/F: Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.

False

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?

The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?

serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte

Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?

labia majora

The primary function of the uterus is to ________.

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

The __________, a layer of the endometrium, is shed during each menstruation and is then regenerated by the __________.

stratum functionalis; stratum basalis

The __________ connects the uterus to the vagina.

cervix

What is the pigmented ring of skin situated slightly below the center of each breast?

areola

The mammary glands belong to which of the following systems?

integumentary system

What part of the breast produces milk?

alveoli

What part of the female duct system is the usual site of fertilization of the ovulated oocyte?

uterine (fallopian) tube (oviduct)

T/F: Female orgasm is required for conception

False

T/F: The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle.

True

T/F: The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only.

False

T/F: Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle.

False

T/F: The smaller cell produced by oogenesis meiosis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material.

True

Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?

LH

Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?

The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

Normally menstruation occurs when ________.

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

progesterone levels are at their highest

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?

corpus luteum

Effects of estrogen include ________.

growth of the breasts at puberty

T/F: Oocytes only complete meiosis II if they are fertilized.

True

Formation of a secondary oocyte occurs during __________.

the follicular phase

During what phase of the female's uterine (menstrual) cycle is the uterine lining shed?

menstrual phase

T/F: Sexually transmitted diseases are an important cause of female fertility problems

True

Which of the following is NOT a sexually transmitted bacterial disease?

genital herpes

T/F: Sperm from the male parent determines the gender of the child.

True

Which hormone promotes the formation of secondary sex characteristics such as the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair, enhanced hair growth on the chest, and a deepening voice?

testosterone

Based on your knowledge of how the prostate encircles part of the urethra, what are two clinical manifestations of an enlarged prostate?

Awakening at night to void caused by decreasing bladder capacity from an enlarging prostate; a small urinary stream; hesitancy in starting the urinary stream; dribbling at the end of voiding

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