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1. Lymphatic vessels recover about ____ of the fluid filtered by capillaries

15%

2. Lymph is similar to blood plasma but very low in

protein

3. Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary _____ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.

lipids

4. The ______ tonsils are the largest, and their tonsillectomy (surgical removal) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.

palatine

5. All these forces help lymph to flow except

the lymphatic node pump

6. _____ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the ________.

collecting ducts; subclavian veins

7. Immune surveillance is a process in which _______ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells.

natural killer (NK) cells

8. This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age

thymus

9. This is the only lymphatic organ with afferent lymphatic vessels.

lymph node

10. Removal of the _______ will be the most harmful of all for a one-year-old child.]

thymus

11. All these belong to the second line of defense except

the gastric juices

12. ______ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites, and allergens.

eosinophils

13. _____ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H202) and hypochlorite (HC1O).

neutrophils

14. Complement fixation can lead to any of the following effects except

endogenous pyrexia

15. ______ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.

interferons

16. This figure shows

the action of a natural killer cell

17. A pyrogen is a substance that causes

fever

18. This is the first of a serious of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation

margination

19. _______ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.

impaired use

20. Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called _____.

heparin; histamine

21. All these cellular agents participate in inflammation except

cytotoxic T cells

22. These are a group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer (NK) cells.

granzymes

23. Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by _____ in a process called _____.

neutrophils and macrophanges; opsonization

24. _______ are antimicrobial proteins.

interferons

25. One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that

immunity is directed against a particular pathogen

26. Vaccination stimulates

artificial active immunity

27. Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against

cancer cells

28. A(n) _________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.

epitope

29. T cells achieve immunocompetence in

the thymus

30. T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means

they multiply and form clones of identical T cells

31. The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates

artificial passive immunity

32. The majority of T cells of the naïve lymphocyte pool wait for the encounter with foreign antigens in

the lymphatic tissues

33. All of the following can act as antigen-presenting cells except

T cells

34. Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)

major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein

35. Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in

lymph nodes

36. Helper T (TH) cells do not

secrete fever-producing chemicals

37. _______ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response

helper T cells

38. Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like a natural killer (NK) cell because they both

secrete granzymes and perforin

39. Memory T cells can live up to

decades

40. Antibodies do not

differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a quicker attack

41. This is the correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response.

antigen recognition -- antigen presentation -- clonal selection -- differentiation -- attack

42. Each immunoglobin (Ig) has ______ antigen-bonding site(s).

two

43. ________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma.

IgG

44. This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn.

IgA

45. Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into

plasma cells

46. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly

helper T cells

47. Most common allergies are the result of

type 1 (acute) hypersensitivity

48. Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is a(n)

type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity

49. A person who is HIV-positive and has helper T (TH) cells count lower than ______ has AIDS.

200 cells

50. Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish _____ from foreign ones.

self antigens

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