companies, mainly in India (since any educated person there speaks English, but can paid a low wage), in which workers aer contracted to answer calls. When you finally talk to someone after calling a company's "800" number, or recieve an annoying random advertising call, it's usually from someone at a call center.
a permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services that, though they constitute under 1% of Earth's surface, are home to almost all humans
services provided to individual consumers who desire tham and can afford to pay for them:
-- nearly 1/2 of all jobs in US
-- four main types of consumer services:
1. retail and wholesale services --
X retail -- provide goods for sale to consumers
XX Ex: grocer, department stores, motor vehicle sales (each one of these accounts for 1/5 of US retail services)
X wholesale: provide retailers with merchandise
2. education services -- 11% of jobds in US
X 2/3 employed in public school
X 1/3 in private school
3. health services -- 10% of US jobs in health care, primarily hospitals, dr.'s offices, nursing homes
4. leisure and hospitality services -- 10% of all US jobsX
X 3/4 in restaurants/bars
X 1/4 divided among lodging and entertainment
services that facilitate other business --
-- 1/4 of US jobs
-- financial services -- 6% of US jobs
XX jobs and banks and other financial institutions -- 1/2
XX insurance companies -- 1/3
XX real estate -- remainder
-- professional services -- 13% of US jobs
X management position -- 1/10
X technical services like law, accounting,engineering, design, consulting, and architecture -- 2/5
X support services like clerical, secretarial, and custodial work -- 1/2
-- transportation and similar services -- businesses that diffuse and distribute services
X 6% of US jobs
X transportation -- 1/2
XX primarily trucking
X information services like publishing, broadcasting, and utilities like water and electricity -- 1/2
provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
-- excluding public schoold employees: 9% of all US jobs
-- fed gov -- 1/6
-- state gov -- 1/4
-- one of local govs -- 3/5
In business services, where have jobs increased, and where have the decreased? For the latter question, why?
Jobs have increased in the professional services sector. Jobs have decreased in the finance and transportation sector because of imporved efficiency, which results in less workers being needed.
In consumer services, where have jobs increased, and where have the decreased? For the latter question, why?
Jobs have increased most rapidly in health services, but have also increased in recreation and entertainment. Retailing has not increased because, though more stores are being opened, less workers are needed.
What has happened in public services?
Overall, it has declined, but the number of local gov employs has been expanding, where as the number of feds has been decreasing.
Describe early consumer services in relation to the origin of settlements.
-- settlements were established so that people had permenant resting places for the dead
X lead to priests required to perform services for dead which lead to temples
-- women made household objects and educated the children
X these services evolved over 1000s of years into schools, libraries, theaters, museams, and other institutions that created/stored groups' calues, and passed them on from gen. to gen.
-- people needed fuel, shelter and other goods, so settlements became manufacturing centers
X men gathered needed resources
X women used them into make goods and maintain household
-- if one person could make something but not something else, he could trade former for latter, so settlements became retail centers
Describe early public services in relation to the origin of settlements.
-- followed religious activities into early settlements
-- political leaders lived in settlements
-- to protect land claims, people became soldiers
-- to protect settlement, people built walls around it on which soldiers were stationed
Describe early business services in relation to the origin of settlements.
-- everyone in settlement needed food, so they brought in extra just in case of drought or conflict: early transportation services
-- food needed to be stored, so settlements became warehouses
-- settlements sometimes were used as nuetral ground for the people living there to trade with those of other settlements, so fservices like regulating transactions, setting fair prices, keeping records, and creating currency system: first professional services
clustered rural settlement
aplace where a number of familes live in close proximity to eachother, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
-- contains farn structures, homes, barns, and consumer services, like religious structures, schools, shops, and sometimes a handful of public and business services
-- also called a hamlet or village
-- fields generally limited to radius of 1-2 km
Traditionally, when the pop. of a clustered settlement grows too large, what happens?
satellite settlements are established
What are the two arrangements that clustered rural settlements generally take on?
-- circular -- central open space surrounded by structures
-- linear -- buildings clustered along road, river, or dike to facilitate communication
X fields extend behind buildings alond narrow strips
What three regions along the East Coast did the first European colonists settle in?
New England, the Southeast, and the Middle Atlantic
Describe settlements built by the first New England settlers
-- centered around open area called common with school, church, and homes clustered around it
-- settlers had houses + house lots of 1-5 acres containing barn, garden, and enclosures for feeding livestock + several disconitnous fields on periphery of settlement for growing crops
-- beyond peripheral fields were pastures and woodlands for common use by all residents
Why did the New England settlers arrange their settlements like this?
-- common at center of land grant
X group granted area of land by English gov 4-10 square miles
-- church played a central role in daily activities:
X everyone in group usually belonged to the same church and were seeking religious freedom
X settlement leader generally official of the puritan church
-- good for defense against attacks by natives
Describe the type of settlement popular with the first settlers of the Southeast.
plantation: owner lived in mansion surrounded by service buildings including laundry, kitchen, dairy, and bakery
What were the disadvantages of the clustered rural settlement arrangement used in New England?
-- discontinuous fields meant extra time spent between them, more roads had to be built to connect small lots, farmers were restricted in what they could plant
-- not good for large pop.
What arrangment was used by Middle atlantic colonists and why?
dispersed rural settlements:
-- settled by Germany, Holland, Ireland, Scotland, and Sweden
-- settled more by individuals who bought land than by groups
What arrangement dominated the midwest?
dispersed because the land was primarily settled by Middle Atlantic pioneers crossing Appalachians, land cheap and plentiful, so they bought as much as they could manage
When did New England settlements become more dispersed and why?
the 18th century, cultural bonds that created clustered settlements had weakened, people were less interested in those values and let people buy land regardless of religious association
a movement occuring in Great Britian between 1750 and 1850, in which the rural landscape was transformed by combining individually owned plots of land surrounding vills. into a large individually owned farm even if it meant the gov forcing people to give up holdings-- a movement to clustered rural settlements into dispersed ones
What were the benefits of the enclosure movement?
-- greater agri. efficiency, because farmer did not waste time moving between fields, and with the introduction of farm machinery of the industrial rev., farms operated more efficiently at larger scale
-- former villers moved to urban areas and became factory workers
a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area, so called because it is centrally located to allow max accessibility
central place theory
theory first created in the 1930s and than developed in the 1950s that explains the common distribution patterns of services and why they exist
a market for the exchange of goods or services by people attracted from the surrounding area, generally centrally located to allow for maximum accessibility, which creates a regular pattern of settlements
central place theory
a theory first proposed in the 1930s by the German geographer Walter Christaller based on his studies of Southern Germany which explains how services are regularly distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements forms (at least in MDCs)
-- states that MDCs comprise series of market areas in the shape of hexagons of various sizes unless interrupted by physical features which overlapp and can even encompass one another based on the size of the settlement -- the nesting pattern (not an actual official term)
To what does it apply best to?
areas likie the Great Plains which are not heavily industrialized nor interrupted by many major physical features like mountains or rivers
Why do geographers use hexagons to represent hinterlands
unlike circles, they fit together, while every point is relatively the same distance to the center point
What is the market area a good example of?
a nodal region -- region with core where characteristic is most intense
The closer people are the border of a service's hinterland, the more likely they are to _______.
obtain services from another node
What two pieces of information do geographers use to determine the size of the market area?
the range and threshold of the service
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service ( generally measured in the time it takes to get there), or the radius of the theoretical circle drawn to delineate the market area, which itself is irregular so as to encompass only the areas where it is closer to its consumers than a competing service
How is the size of the hinterland determined based on threshold?
the population of the people which the service applies to in it
How would you determine if a location was profitable for a service?
1.Take a survey to see how much people spend on average in a week on that service and how far they are willing to drive to get to that service.
2. Use the former to calculate the threshold based on how much the service needs to make in a week
3. Draw a circle on a map based on the latter, accounting for competition
4. If the number of people in the circle is greater than the threshold you calculated in step 2, it would be profitable.
Having determined the optimal hinterland for a service, what location within it would maximize profit?
the one that minimizes the time it takes to reach the service for the largest number of people
How is the optimum location for a department store determined?
-- sutiable site one that has potential to bring in enough sales to justify capital spent on building it
-- determined by estimating sales that would be made in that area
1. market area defined as the zip codes where 2/3 to 3/4 of its customers live
X based on this, for non-upscale d-stores, most geos estimate range to be about 15 minutes
X threshold typically about 250,000 people living within the range
XX amount of money available in area to spend also very important
2. market share -- proposed d-store will have to share customers with competititors, if the store will still be able to be profitable is determined via the analog method
X one or more existing stores identified in location of proposed d-store
X information about viability of proposed d-store depicted via GIS
XX one layer depicts market area of it (determined in step 1)
XX other layers depict characteristics of people living around it like distribution of households, average income, and competitor's stores
a model adopted from physics which predicts the optimal location of services related to the number of people in the area and the the distance they must travel to access it
-- states consumer behavior reflects two patterns
1. the greater the number of people living in the area, the greater is the number of potential customers for a service
2. the farther people are from a particular service the less likely they are to use it
What steps do geos follow when applying the gravity model to find the best location?
1. identify possible site for service
2. within range of service, identify where every possible user lives
3. measure distance from location to potential users
4. divide each user based on these measurements
5. Sum all of the results of potential users divided by distances
6.select second possible location for service and repeat setps 1-5
7. compare results of step 5 for all possible sites: one with highest score is the best location
Describe the nesting pattern described by the central place theory.
overlapping hexagons of different sizes based on the four levels of market area (in order from smallest to largest) -- hamlet, village, town, city
the country's nth largest settlement has 1/n the pop. of the largest settlement
-- closely followed in the US and a handful of other countries including among the smaller settlements of several MDCs in Europe, but not the larger settlements
-- Ex: the fourth largest city in a country has 1/4 the pop. of the largest
primate city rule
the largest city -- called the primate city -- has more than twice as many people as the second largest
-- Ex: in Denmark, Copenhagen (primate city) has 1 million inhabitants, while the second largest urban area, Arhus, has only 200,000
-- followed by many larger settlements in European countries as well as many LDCs
What does the presence of a regular heirarchy of settlements, such as in the US, indicate about the society?
it is sufficiently wealthy to justify the provision of goods and services to cunsumer throughout the country
Explain what is going on in Romania regarding the heirarchy of settlements
-- there are no settlements with 320,000-2 million people, or 1000 -- 10,000 people
-- creates harships for people who have to travel long distances to reach Urban areas to access services like shops and hospitals
-- since most Romanians don't have cars, gov. has to pay for bus service
-- recognizing this, gov. has placed restrictions on growth of largest city, Bucharest , which has approx. 2 million inhabitants, (second largest has 320,000)
X need permit to move there
X new services like better roads, schools, apartments, and hospitals, built in smaller rural settlements
a collection of individ. vendors who come together to offer goods and services in a location on a specified day
-- usually mobile
-- provides goods to residents in LDCs and rural areas in MDCs
-- offer fresh food brough in from country side in urban areas
-- varies by culture
X in most Muslum countries, vendors come once a week in ech of 6 cities, save on Friday, which is the Muslim day of rest
X in Africa, ranges from 3-7 days
X in Korea, two 15 day cycles fit in a lunar month
Describe the origin of the urban settlement.
-- date back to the beginning recorded history in the Middle East and Asia
-- may have originated in Mesopotomia and diffused to Egypt, China, and South Asia's indus river valley or it may have originated independently from all four hearths
-- one of the earlies in Urban settlements
-- in Mesopotomia
-- name means fire
-- home of Abraham prior to journey to Canaan in circa 1900 BCE
-- compact -- covered 100 hectares
-- most prominant structure was ziggurat -- three story temple and command center of city and surrounding hinterland
X 4 more stories added in 6th century
X surrounded by dense network of winding narrow streets and courtyards
-- urban settlement in Turkey dating back to 2500 BCE
-- houses varied in size but similar in design and arranged in regular pattern because walls and streets laid out first
-- temples and other public buildings in center
-- cemetary outside city walls
-- covered about 50 hectares
-- had pop. of about 10,000
-- abandoned after 300 years and never covered by newer buildings, leaving it well preserved
What are some of the oldest?
Knossos on Crete, troy in Asia Minor (Turkey), Mycenae in Greece ALL CITY STATES AND TRADING CENTERS
Describe the diffusion of urban settlements to the rtest of the Mediterranean.
-- diffused rapidly during the 7th and 8th century BCE
-- often, one settlement would establish a new settlement to fill gap in trade route and open new markets
X city-state of Syracuse in Southeastern Sicily established new city-states in Sicily and Italy between 750 and 700 BCE
X Marseille (than called Masilia) in France founded settlements along coast of present day Spain in the 6th century BCE
What was the the max population of the city of Rome?
at least 250,000 inhabitants, though some say it might have been 1 million
What happened to Urban settlements after the fall of the Roman empire and why?
They declined and even abandoned in some cases because they had relied on trade within the secure Roman Empire
Describe the revival of Urban in Europe.
-- the 11th century when fuedal lords began establishing rural settlements via charters given to residents in exchange for fighting for the lord, which people much preferred to serfdom
-- urban dwellers began to expand their trade
X surplus from countryside brought in for sale or exchange
X markets expanded through trade with other cities
XX this was enhanced by construction of new roads and more use of rivers
-- by 14th century, Europe covered by network of small market towns serving needs of particular lord
X largest ones served as power centers for fuedal and church leaders
-- towns were dense, with structures attatched to eachother going right up to the wall itself
True/False: urban settlements were usually surrounded by walls, even after cannonballs made them ineffective.
True -- Paris, for ex, surrounded itself with new walls in 1840, and did not completely remove them until 1932
Between the collapse of the Roman empire and the diffusion of the industrial revolution to Europe, where were most of the world's largest cities located?
What were the five most populous cities in 900.
Bahdad, Constantinople, Kyoto (in Japan), and Changan and Hangchow (in China).
-- Agra (India), Cairo, Canton (China), Isfahan (Iran), and Osaka (Japan) also ranked among the world's most populous cities
In the early 1800s, what city becamse the world's most populous?
London, ending a several-century-long competition between Beijing and Constantinople
True/False: While econ. activities have become more centralized, especially in manufacturing, modern inventions reinforce rural life instead of a clustered urban one.
false, econ activities have become more decentralized especially in manufacturing, while modern inventions reinforce urban life
True/False: A disproportionatly large amount of wealthy people live in cities. What has this lead to?
true,many leisure services cluster in cities and highly specialized and luxury products are more likely to be sold there like concerts, operas, night clubs, libraries, museums, sporting events, and theaters
-- Ex: London presents more plays than the rest of the UK combined, and New York nearly has more theaters than the rest of the US combined
What are the four levels of cities that play a major role in the provision of producer and other business services in the global econ in order of most to least?
world city, regional command and control center, specialized producer service center, dependent center
What three world cities stand out in a class of their own?
--Tokyo, London, and New York stand out in catagory of their own
X each is the largest city in one of 3 main regions of more developed world
X world's most important stock eschange operates here
X contain large concentrations of financial and realted business services
-- second tier of major world cities includes Chicago, LA, Washington DC, Frankfurt, Brussels, Paris, Zurich (Western Europe), and Sao Paulo and Singapre (only two in LDC regions)
X major corps may have headquarters here
-- third tier of secondary world cities includes Houston, Miami, San Francisco, Toronto, Bangkok, Bombay, Hong Kong, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Berlin, Madrid, Milan, Rotterdam, Vienna, Buenos Aires, Caracus, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Johannesburg (Africa), and Sydney
command and control centers
cities that contain centers for major corp., well-developed banking facilities, and concentrations of other business services, as well as important educational, medical, and public institutions
-- Ex: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Denver, Indianapolis, Kansas, City, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Portland (Oregon), St. Lois, and Seattle
specialized producer-service center
cities that offer a more narrow, specialized variety of services,
-- one group specializes in research and development activities related to a specific industry
XX motor vehicles in Detroit
XX steel in Pittsburgh
XX office equipment in Rochester, NY
XX semiconductors in San Jose, CA
-- another group specializes in gov. and edu., notably state capitols with major universities
-- provide relatively unskilled jobs
-- dependent on decisions made in world and regional command and control centers and specialized producer service-centers
-- four subtypes in US:
1. resort, retirement and residential centers
XX Las Vegas
XX Fort Lauderdale
X clustered mostly in South and West
2. manufacturing centers
X clustered in old Northeastern manufacturing belt
3. industrial and military centers
XX San Diego
X clustered mostly in South and West
4. Mining and industrial centers
XX Charleston (West Virginia)
define a settlement's distinctive econ. structure, export primarily to consumers outside settlement
enterprises whose customers live in the sane community, essentially consumer services
a community's unique collection of basic industries
-- important because exporting by basic indies brings money into local econ. stimulating provision of more nonbasic ones
X attracts additional workers, facilitating increase in consumer services to compensate
How can a community's basic econ. activities identified?
1. compute average amount of workers employed in particular indy
2. compare percentage to percentage of workforce in country in that indy
3. if percentage is much higher in local community, than that indy is basic econ. activity
Where are most settlements that have an econ. base of manufacturing durable goods clustered? Nondurable goods like textiles?
Northern Ohio and Southeastern Wisconsin, near Southern Great Lakes / Southeast, especially in the Carolinas
Where are business services concentrated?
large Metropolitan areas like Chicago, Los Angeles, NYC, and San Francisco
Describe normal settlements that specialize in Public services.
dipersed throughout country, generally have large university, state capital, or military base
Describe normal settlements that specialize in consumer-services.
generally have recreation and entertainment centers like Atlantic City, Las Vegas, and Rheno, as well as medical centers like Rochester and Minnesota
True/False: the population of cities in the South and West has grown more slowly in recent years.
False: more rapidly
Have north and East cities expanded their provision of business services more or less rapidly? Why?
more, to offset the decline of their once substantial manufacturing industry
What are the two types of financial services offered by LDCs?
-- offering offshore financial services
-- back-office functions (BPOs)
offshore financial services
-- provide two important functions in the global econ.
1. tax advantages
-- taxes on income, profits, and capital gains virtually nonexistent
-- people who are getting sued or a divorce can put some of their money away in offshore accounts
-- Ex: Cayman Islands
-- primarily island countries in Carribean or Pacific
What are some examples of countries who act as offshore centers who are not islands?
Monaco, Leichtenstien, Andorra, Belize, Panama, Bahrain, Liberia
-- functions include...
X processing insurance claims, payroll management, transcription work, and other routine clerical activities
X centers for responding to billing inquiries related to credit cards, shipments, and claims, or technical inquiries related to installation, operation, and repair
-- LDCs attracted them for two main reasons...
X low wage rates
X the ability to speak English -- resulted in it only being attractive in LDCs with substantial portion of English speakers like the Philippines, Malaysia, and India
Traditionally, what have companies done with their back-office staff? Why have they ceased this practice?
housed them in the same building, rising rents in downtown cities
What characteristics of cities attract talented individuals?
-- mainly cultural diversity
-- to some extent, the most job opportunities and financial incentives
Why are talented individuals important to a city?
they promote econ. innovation
-- likely to start new businesses
-- induse local econ. with fresh ideas
What are some examples of cities in the US with lots of talented people? What are some examples of ones without many?
-- Washington DC, Boston, San Francisco, Seattle
-- Las Vegas
central business district
-- generally oldest part of city (original settlement)
-- where businesses have in past tended to cluster
-- easiest part of city to reach usually
X focal point of transportation
-- usually less than 1% of the landmass
-- commonly called downtown
-- generally center of city
What three types of retail services locate in the CBD?
shops that have high threshold, long range, serve workers in CBD
high threshold shops
-- generally large department stores
X often agglomerate onto one street
XX called 100% street
-- currently, many d-stores closing CBD branch
X relocating to suburban malls
high range shops
-- generally highly specialized
X customers patronize them infrequently
-- many have moved with D-stores to suburb malls
-- some have retained location in CBD or moved to other location in city for proximity to scenic or widely trafficked area
-- many have agglomerated into downtown malls or streets which are attractive because they offer recreation in addition to products
X Ex: renevated downtown historical markets
retail services serving downtown workers
-- sell more functional services
X Ex: rapid photocopying, clothes, dry-cleaning, shoe repair, groceries (outside North America, these tend to have limited in Europe due to preferences of shopkeepers and gov.)
XX lots of lunch shopping
-- expanding in CBDs
-- many cities trying to preserve downtown shopping district
X one method is to ban motor vehicles on streets, just pedestrian walking para create shopping streets
What kind of services locate in the CBD and why?
-- highly specialized ones or ones in need of highly skilled employees because of central location
-- proximity to other businesses or ones that require info quickly to establish close relationships
high land costs in CBDs
-- one hectare of land in CBD of NY or London could cost 100 millions of $ if even available
-- prices particularly high in Tokyo because buildings limited to about 3 stories by gov and tax restrictions due to Earthquakes despite current data suggesting modern skyscrapers might be better
X parcel of land size of page of textbook would cost 10,000s of $
-- resulted in 2 characteristics
1. land used more intensively in center of city
2. some activities excluded from center due to high cost of space
intenisve land use
-- people build farther up and down
-- utilities, transportation network, and pedestrian centers located underneath
XX loading docks
XX parking garages
XX pedestrian walking streets to sheild people from weather and motor vehicles
XX telephone wires
XX sewage and water utilities
-- first built in Chicago in 1880s
X made possible by two inventions
1. iron-frame buildings
-- city distinguished mainly by unique skyline
-- originally created problems because tehy blocked sunlighted and facilitated high winds via the artificial canyons they created
X many govs in Europe and NA made zoning in early 20th century
-- now buildings too close together again
X reviving old problems that were cured by modern tech like artificial lighting and air conditioning
X might cause energy issues
-- Ex of vertical geography
X the nature of an activity influences whcih floor it occupies
XX lower levels tend to be retail
XX high levels tend to be offices and apartments
What two activities are excluded from the CBD?
high rents and land shortages discourage two main activities:
-- factoriesn --
X industrial port activity moving to old inner city ports thanks to manuverability of current vessels
X cities demolishing derelect warehouses and peirs on their water fronts in favor of commercial buildings and tourist attractions
-- residents --
X rich people used to build mansions downtown while poor people lived in conjested dirty living areas
X people abandoned downtown living for both push/pull factors
XX push factors --
XXX high rent
XXX unpleasant living conditions
XX pull factors (mainly to suburbs) --
XXX large amount of land available
XXX nicer standard of living
XXX newer schools
X downtown living growing again, particularly among people without kids
Why are there not as many high rise buildings in European cities?
European cities want to preserve their historic cores
X no high rise buildings allowed in Paris
X Warsaw rebuilt entire historic districtdestroyed in WW2
suburbanization of retailing
-- large shopping areas separated via zoning from residential areas
-- corner stores been replaced by shopping agglomerations of various forms, often at junction of several major roads
X malls become social centers
X rely on major anchor stores
Why have factories relocated?
more land, less traffic conjestion creates easy access by trucks, though sometimes hard to get to for lower status workers
What country has the world's largest labor force engaged in services?
India -- mainly patent researchers insurance claim processors, architectural drafters, radiologists, and software executives
-- English-speaking people available
-- college grads. there willing to do same work for less