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Thermochemistry

is the study of the transfers of energy as heat that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes.

Calorimeter

the energy absorbed or released as heat in a chemical or physical change is measured

Temperature

is a measure of the average kinetic enrgy of the particles in a sample of matter

Joule

is the SI unit of heat as well as all other forms of energy

Heat

can be thought of as the energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperatures

Specific Heat

is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one celsius degree

Enthalpy Change

is th eamount of energy absorbed by a system as heat during a process at constant pressure

Enthalpy of Reaction

is the quantity of energy transferred as heat during a chemical reaction

Thermochemical Equations

an equation that includes the quantity of energy released of absorbed as heat during the reaction as written

Morlar Enthalpy of Formation

is the enthalpy change that occurs when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements in their standard state at 25C and one atom

Enthalpy of Combustion

the enthalpy change that occurs during the complete combustion of one mole of a substance

Hess's Law

the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process

Entropy

a measure of the degree of randomness of the particles such as molecules in a system

Free Energy

this combined enthalpy-entropy function

Free-Energy Change

of a system is defined as the difference between the change in enthalp, and the product of the Kelvin temperature and the entropy chnage which is defind as TtriangleS

Melting

the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding energy as heat or changing pressure

Freezing

the change of state in which a liquid becomes asolid as energy as heat is removed

Vaporization

the process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas

Condensation

the change of state from a gas to a lizuid

Triple Point

the temperature and pressure conditions at which a solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium

Sublimation

the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas

Deposition

the change of state from a gas directly to a solid

Critical Point

the temperature and pressure at which the gas and liquid states of a substance become identical and form one phase

Critical Pressure

the lowest pressure at which a substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature

Critical Temperature

the temperature above which a substnace cannot exist in a liquid state

Evaporation

the change of state from a liquid to a gas

Vaporization Curve

the boundary between solid and liquid for any given substance plotted on the phase

Sublimation Curve

a graph of th evapor pressure of a solid as a function of temperature, goes directly from a solid to a gas

Supercritical Fluid

Substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point

Vapor

barely visible or cloudy difused matter mist fums of smoke supended in the air

Evaporization

process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state

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