1. Which of the following news sources reaches most Americans?
c. the Internet
2. Which of the following news sources typically provides the least depth while covering topics?
c. the Internet
3. Why do radio stations repeat the news so often throughout the day?
a. In order for radio news to sink in, people need to hear stories more than once.
b. The audience is constantly changing since most people listen to the radio in their
c. There is not enough news to fill an entire day's worth of programming.
d. Radio news normally provides more headline than in-depth coverage since it
comes directly from the television script.
4. The news source that eighteen- to twenty-nine-year-olds most commonly turn to is
b. broadcast television.
d. cable television.
5. All of the following are reasons why newspaper reportage is critical except that
a. newspaper reporters break most important stories.
b. political, social, and economic elites rely most heavily on newspapers.
c. newspapers are the cheapest source of news.
d. broadcast media does very little original reporting.
6. What is the main benefit of news coverage on the Internet?
a. It is accessible to more people than any other media source, apart from television.
b. It is the most accurate source of news.
c. It combines the depth of newspapers with the timeliness of television and radio.
d. It is the least expensive source of news.
7. Which of the following statements concerning Internet news is correct?
a. The Internet has failed to expand its number of news sources since it relies
heavily on electronic versions of printed media.
b. The Internet has greatly expanded the number of different news sources available
beyond the print media.
c. The Internet has lowered its quality of news reporting due to the lack of reliable
d. The Internet as a news source is more biased against the government than print
8. Which of the following is most free of government regulation?
d. All are equally regulated by the government.
9. The __________ regulates broadcast media.
a. Federal Bureau of Investigation
b. Federal Communications Commission
c. Public Broadcast System
d. Voice of America
10. Web sites with personal commentary on news events, links to other Web sites, and short posts of views
a. editorial pages.
c. Web casts.
11. Which statement about the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is false?
a. The FCC was established in 1965 under President Lyndon Johnson.
b. The FCC licenses radio and television stations.
c. The FCC bans explicit sexual and excretory references on airwaves during certain
hours of the day.
d. Nearly one half of all obscenity fines levied by the FCC since 1990 were against
12. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the
government and the media in the United States today?
a. The government controls most media content through regulations and tightly
controlled press briefings.
b. The government owns, but does not control, the major sources of media.
c. The government does not own but regulates the content and ownership of
d. Broadcast media are not regulated in the United States.
13. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 did all of the following except
a. loosen federal restrictions of media ownership.
b. allow broadcasters, telephone companies, and cable companies to compete with
c. make it illegal to make indecent sexual material accessible to minors on the
d. All of the above were parts of the act
14. Which governmental regulation provides candidates in the same political office equal opportunities to
communicate their messages?
a. the right of rebuttal rule
b. the equal time rule
c. the fairness doctrine
d. the diversity in the media doctrine
15. The Supreme Court case Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC upheld
a. the fairness doctrine.
b. the right of rebuttal.
c. the equal time rule.
d. all of the above.
16. If a television station sold commercial time to a Republican candidate for governor, but refused to sell
time to the Democratic candidate for governor, this station would be violating the
a. the Telecommunications Act of 1996.
b. the fairness doctrine.
c. the equal time rule.
d. the right of rebuttal
17. The fairness doctrine required that
a. all network news reports be balanced and fair-minded or else they would be
labeled as editorials.
b. broadcasters who aired controversial issues provide time for opposing viewpoints.
c. all regulated newspapers establish a section of the editorial page for letters from
d. all radio stations present at least five minutes of news an hour.
18. What percentage of daily newspapers are owned by large media conglomerates?
a. 25 percent
b. 40 percent
c. 55 percent
d. 75 percent
19. Which of the following is not a national newspaper?
a. The Wall Street Journal
b. The Christian Science Monitor
d. USA Today
20. Which of the following statements is not an argument regularly made in favor of limiting the market
power of major media corporations?
a. Regulation is needed to preserve the diversity of public opinion.
b. The media's quality improves when there is actual competition.
c. Regulating the media market creates more job opportunities in the field of
d. Media competitiveness is necessary for political competitiveness.
21. Nationalization of the news began
a. at the founding of the United States and with the development of its political
b. in the first decades of the twentieth century with the development of news
corporations and radios.
c. in the 1980s with the innovation of cable television.
d. in the 1990s with the advent of the Internet.
22. Why is the media important for promoting political equality?
a. Working for the media is the least expensive approach to having an influence in
b. Without the media, information would be monopolized by a small number of
c. The media are willing to attack everyone, regardless of status or wealth.
d. all of the above
23. The term "nationalization of the news" refers to
a. the decline of local news reporting and public interest in local news.
b. the fact that more Americans throughout the country are receiving the same news
c. the greater level of governmental control and regulation of the news media.
d. all of the above.
24. The nationalization of news in the United States has had an important political consequence due to
a. the federal government now being able to control what every American watches
and listens to.
b. Americans tending to view the world with a similar approach since they are
exposed to the same concerns and perspectives.
c. the states being better able to influence government decision making.
d. Americans having a greater ability to influence government decision making.
25. The Pentagon Papers were released as a result of
a. Nixon's repudiation of the Johnson administration's strategy in Vietnam.
b. investigations led by Washington Post reporters in 1972.
c. a leak by a minor Defense Department staffer.
d. an accident in which some of the papers were left on a Washington, D.C. subway.
26. The press release was created
a. during the administration of James Monroe in the 1810s.
b. in the early twentieth century by a public relations firm working for a railroad.
c. by Franklin Roosevelt in 1933.
d. by P.T. Barnum, as a way of publicizing his circus
27. Approximately __________ percent of news coverage in American newspapers is devoted to
28. Which of the following is not a significant factor in determining the particular interpretation of a news
a. government regulation
b. the news audience
c. the sources of the news
d. the journalists
29. In 1898, the newspaper stories of publisher William Randolph Hearst led to
a. the development of the first set of governmental regulations on print media.
b. a war between the United States and Spain.
c. World War I.
d. the development of the wire service
30. Most newspaper reporters identify themselves as
a. liberal to moderate.
b. moderate to conservative.
31. Reporters have the ability to significantly influence news stories since they
a. have been trained to think critically and write well.
b. generally demonstrate a great deal of discretion while interpreting the news,
giving themselves the opportunity to interject personal views and ideals into their
c. have more access to newsmakers.
d. are usually supported by a trained staff that outdoes the public's ability
to analyze events.
32. Which of the following is not a conservative news source?
a. The Washington Times
b. The American Spectator
c. The Washington Post
d. The Wall Street Journal
33. Which of the following is a conservative news broadcasting service?
a. ABC Nightly News
b. 60 Minutes
c. Fox News
34. The most important selection bias in news is
a. the ideology of the journalists.
b. the audience appeal of a story.
c. the newsworthiness of a story.
d. the economic interests of the media's owners
35. News leaks are useful for all of the following reasons except
a. helping in the cultivation of good relations with the media.
b. allowing a particular person or group to bolster their position with opponents.
c. being the only legal means of avoiding rules of confidentiality and privacy
established by the government.
d. allowing politicians to speak without attribution
36. Besides their ideological biases, journalists also exhibit selection biases in favor of news stories the
media view as
a. favorable to leaders and issues they support.
b. having a great deal of dramatic or entertainment value.
c. important for the public to be aware of.
d. sympathetic to the government as a whole
37. The media frenzy over the Monica Lewinsky scandal is evidence that
a. the media are not at all liberal.
b. the conservative media have more influence on public opinion than any other
c. the power of the media is declining.
d. the media's bias is more oriented toward entertainment than ideology
38. A short, attention-grabbing phrase that summarizes a position is called a
c. sound bite.
d. news nugget
39. Why are staged protests and conflicts usually a successful method in getting one's views publicized?
a. Such events will be reported because audiences enjoy the news for its
b. The issues that lead to conflict are likely to be newsworthy.
c. Protests are easy to report, leading to their frequent appearances in the news.
d. The U.S. government pays attention to large and violent protests
40. The power of the media to draw public attention to particular issues and problems is called
c. agenda setting.
41. The media can set the political agenda in the United States by
a. identifying an issue as a problem that must be solved.
b. endorsing a particular political candidate.
c. only accepting advertising from businesses that are identified as being
d. maintaining a strictly nonpartisan approach to news reporting
42. The __________ describes how a person's interpretation of an incident can be influenced by the manner
and context in which an event is portrayed in the media.
43. The question of which party was to blame for the shutdown of governmental services in 1995-96 reveals
the important media power of
a. agenda setting.
c. sound bites.
d. news enclaves
44. The media's power to influence the interpretation of events and issues is called
a. agenda setting.
c. adversarial journalism.
d. prime timing
45. When the media focus on a candidate's relative standing in the polls instead of substantive issues, they
are demonstrating __________ coverage.
b. horse race
d. lame duck
46. In 2003, Arnold Schwarzenegger announced his candidacy for Governor of California
a. at the premiere of Terminator III.
b. on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.
c. at a news conference in front of supporters in Sacramento.
d. while riding in a televised motorcycle convoy from Los Angeles to Sacramento.
47. During the nineteenth century, newspapers were controlled by
a. Wall Street.
b. political parties.
c. churches and other religious groups.
d. state governments
48. Which of the following statements about adversarial journalism is false?
a. It has been accused of leading to increased political cynicism among American
b. It became an established practice during World War II.
c. It has permitted the media to gain more autonomy from the political figures they
d. It has enhanced the media's reputation as the "watchdog" of American politics.
49. A free media is necessary for a popular government for all the following reasons, except
a. that voters need information to make informed choices at the polls.
b. that without the media, citizens would have no knowledge of the government's
actions beyond what the government chooses to reveal.
c. that the media highlight aspects of governmental policies and actions that would
otherwise be known only to insiders with technical knowledge.
d. all of the above.
50. Which of the following has made politicians more dependent on favorable media coverage?
a. the decline in political party organizations
b. the growing popularity of television
c. divided government
d. the declining rate of incumbency