5 Written questions
4 Matching questions
- a The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located:
within the renal sinus.
in the renal papilla.
in the perinephric fat.
inside the tubular pole of the glomerulus.
near the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle.
- b Careful measurements of GFR are made by injection of _______, but approximations of GFR can be made more simply by measuring renal plasma clearance of _________.
creatine phosphate, insulin
insulin, creatine phosphate
- c In response to low blood ________, the kidneys secrete __________.
- d From innermost to outermost, the protective layers on the kidney are the:
fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat.
renal corpuscle, perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat.
renal fascia, paranephric fat, renal corpuscle, perinephric fat.
renal fascia, perinephric fat, fibrous capsule, paranephric fat.
fibrous capsule, paranephric fat, renal fascia, perinephric fat.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Urine passes from a papillary duct into a:
major calyx, then to a minor calyx, then to a ureter.
minor calyx, then to a major calyx, then to the renal pelvis.
ureter, then to a minor calyx, then to a major calyx.
renal pelvis, then to a major calyx, then to a ureter.
collecting duct, then to a minor calyx, then to a major calyx.
- Water and glucose are freely filtered through the filtration membrane of a renal corpuscle.
- The countercurrent multiplier is a system by which the:
nephron loop multiplies the concentration of salts in the interstitial fluid of the kidney medulla.
nephron loop dilutes the concentration of solutes in the tubular fluid at its hairpin turn.
vasa recta secretes multiple amounts of metabolic wastes against their concentration gradient.
vasa recta becomes more concentrated with nitrogenous wastes than the urine.
- The myogenic mechanism of autoregulation that occurs within afferent arterioles of the kidney is an __________ control of GFR.
- The capillaries of the glomerulus differ from most other capillary networks in the body because they:
carry only deoxygenated blood.
drain into an arteriole instead of a venule.
contain no endothelium.
absorb nutrients from the glomerular capsule.
5 True/False questions
b → Which step(s) in the process of urine formation occur in the renal tubule?
Filtration, secretion, and reabsorption
Secretion and reabsorption only
d → Which is not a function of the kidneys?
Regulation of blood pressure
Removal of wastes from the blood
Regulation of erythrocyte production
Regulation of lymphocyte production
Regulation of acid-base balance
c → Which is not correct regarding nephrons?
The renal corpuscle includes the glomerulus and the glomerular capsule.
The renal tubule is composed of the proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, and distal convoluted tubule.
The nephron is the functional filtration unit in the kidney.
Eighty-five percent of nephrons are cortical nephrons.
The renal corpuscle may be located in the renal cortex or renal medulla.
b → Which class of nephron is crucially important in establishing a salt concentration gradient in the kidney so that urine concentration can be regulated?
This figure shows a renal corpuscle. What structure does number 1 indicate?
Distal convoluted tubule
Proximal convoluted tubule