5 Written Questions
3 Matching Questions
- a In the process of urine formation, first:
filtrate is formed, then tubular fluid, then urine.
tubular fluid is formed, then filtrate, then urine.
- b The basement membrane of the glomerulus is composed of glycoproteins and _________, and it restricts the passage of _________.
phospholipids, plasma ions
phospholipids, plasma proteins
proteoglycans, plasma ions
proteoglycans, plasma proteins
- c Nutrients such as glucose and amino acids within the tubular fluid:
are completely secreted.
are completely reabsorbed.
have half of their plasma concentration secreted.
have a little less than half of their tubular fluid concentration reabsorbed.
have concentrations in the filtrate and urine that match their transport maximum.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
This figure shows a frontal section of the kidney. Which number indicates the renal pelvis?
- Which of the following choices lists structures in the order that urine flows through them?
Major calyx, minor calyx, renal pelvis
Renal pelvis, major calyx, minor pelvis
Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis
Major pelvis, minor calyx, renal pelvis
Major calyx, renal pelvis, minor calyx
- How are nephrons, collecting ducts, and collecting tubules related to each other?
One collecting duct drains into one nephron, and one nephron drains into one collecting tubule.
One nephron drains into one collecting tubule, and several collecting tubules empty into a collecting duct.
One nephron drains into one collecting duct, and several collecting ducts empty into a collecting tubule.
One collecting tubule drains into one nephron, and several nephrons drain into one collecting duct.
One nephron drains into several collecting tubules, and all tubules eventually lead to one collecting duct.
- For glucose to be reabsorbed from the tubule lumen, it is transported into the tubule cell by means of a:
glucose protein channel.
- How are the processes of reabsorption and secretion related?
They both involve movement of material from the blood into the tubular fluid.
Materials move in opposite directions: reabsorption moves materials into the blood, whereas secretion removes them from the blood.
Materials move in opposite directions: secretion moves materials into the blood, whereas reabsorption removes them from the blood.
They both involve movement of material from the tubular fluid into the blood.
5 True/False Questions
b → The tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism responds to an increase in:
systemic blood pressure by signaling for a decrease in heart rate through blood-borne hormones.
urine production by signaling for a decrease in urine production through the hormone ADH.
NaCl concentration in tubular fluid by signaling for afferent arteriole constriction with local chemical messengers.
glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure by signaling for afferent arterioles to constrict and increase filtration rate.
b → Most tubular reabsorption occurs in the:
proximal convoluted tubule, where cells have many flagella.
proximal convoluted tubule, where cells have many microvilli.
distal convoluted tubule, where cells have many flagella.
distal convoluted tubule, where cells have many microvilli.
c → The largest possible amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed or secreted across a kidney tubule wall in a given duration of time is known as the:
glomerular filtration rate.
net filtration pressure.
renal clearance exponent.
a → Which is not correct regarding the innervation of the kidney?
Parasympathetic innervation is from the vagus nerve.
The kidney is served by the renal plexus.
Sympathetic innervation is from segments T10-T12 of the spinal cord.
Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction of the renal blood vessels.
Parasympathetic stimulation decreases the rate of filtrate formation.
b → The glomerulus is part of the renal tubule.