Chapter 25 Quiz

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b

A comparison of the two major body fluid compartments reveals that:
two-thirds of the total fluid is outside our cells and one-third is within our cells.
two-thirds of the total fluid is within our cells and one-third is outside our cells.
half of the total fluid is within our cells and half is outside our cells.
six-sevenths of the total fluid is within our cells and one-seventh is outside our cells.
six-sevenths of the total fluid is outside our cells and one-seventh is within our cells.

d

The plasma of our blood constitutes ______ than half of the fluid in our body; plasma is part of the _____________ fluid.
more, intracellular
more, extracellular
less, intracellular
less, extracellular

d

Interstitial fluid composes about ________ of the body's extracellular fluid.
one-tenth
one-third
one-half
two-thirds
nine-tenths

a

When compared to extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid contains:
more potassium and more negatively charged proteins.
more potassium but fewer negatively charged proteins.
less potassium but more negatively charged proteins.
less potassium and less negatively charged proteins.

a

Interstitial fluid has a relatively _______ concentration of sodium and chloride; the concentrations of ions within the interstitial fluid and blood plasma are very ______.
high, similar
high, different
low, similar
low, different

b

Drinking a liter of water will cause the osmolarity of blood plasma to:
increase.
decrease.

a

As an individual becomes dehydrated, the net movement of fluid in their body is from cells toward plasma.
True
False

b

In order for a state of fluid balance to be achieved, obligatory water loss must equal facultative water loss.
True
False

b

Which type of intake accounts for most of our daily fluid intake?
Metabolic water
Preformed water

a

Aerobic cellular respiration and dehydration synthesis reactions result in:
metabolic water intake.
preformed water intake.
insensible water output.
preformed water output.
obligatory water output.

a

Water lost through feces is considered ___________ water loss.
sensible, obligatory
sensible, facultative
insensible, obligatory
insensible, facultative

b

Facultative water loss is loss that:
occurs regardless of the state of hydration of the body.
is controlled by hormone effects on the kidney.
occurs through sweating and breathing.

b

Insensible water loss is an example of facultative water loss.
True
False

c

Renal failure would likely lead to:
volume depletion.
hypotonicity.
volume excess.
hypertonic ascites.

b

In dehydration, blood plasma becomes hypotonic relative to the body's cells.
True
False

a

Extreme hypotonic hydration can cause brain cells to swell.
True
False

a

Decreases in blood pressure turn _____ the thirst center of the brain.
on
off

b

The thirst center of the brain is located in the:
hippocampus.
hypothalamus.
occipital lobe.
pons.

b

When compared with the effects of blood pressure and osmolarity on fluid intake, the effects of saliva and stomach distention are:
more immediate and more accurate.
more immediate but less accurate.
more long-term and more accurate.
more long-term but less accurate.

a

Angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ADH each help decrease urine output.
True
False

b

The hormone ANP:
increases urine output and increases blood volume.
increases urine output and decreases blood volume.
decreases urine output and decreases blood volume.
decreases urine output and increases blood volume.

a

Most nonelectrolytes are covalently bonded organic molecules.
True
False

a

The molecule HCl is an example of a(n):
electrolyte.
nonelectrolyte.
base.

b

When NaCl is added to body fluids it results in the addition of:
one solute particle per NaCl molecule and exerts an osmotic pressure equivalent to that of a nonelectrolyte.
two solute particles per NaCl molecule and exerts twice the osmotic pressure of the same number of nonelectrolyte molecules.
three solute particles per NaCl molecule and exerts one-third the osmotic pressure of the same number of nonelectrolyte molecules.
one solute particle per NaCl molecule, but because it is uncharged it does not result in osmotic pressure.

b

The most abundant cation within cells is:
sodium.
potassium.
calcium.
chloride.
magnesium.

c

The most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid is:
negatively charged proteins.
phosphate.
chloride.
hydrogen.
acetic acid.

d

Which ion is the principal solute of the ECF and is crucial for neuromuscular and renal function?
Magnesium
Phosphate
Calcium
Sodium
Potassium

c

How are sodium levels and blood pressure related?
Increased plasma sodium levels decrease water retention, decrease blood volume, and increase blood pressure.
Decreased plasma sodium levels increase water retention, increase blood volume, and decrease blood pressure.
Increased plasma sodium levels increase water retention, blood volume, and blood pressure.
Decreased plasma sodium levels decrease water retention, increase blood volume, and increase blood pressure.

b

How does the hormone aldosterone influence potassium levels?
It increases potassium secretion by the kidneys and increases potassium blood concentration.
It increases potassium secretion by the kidneys and decreases potassium blood concentration.
It increases potassium reabsorption by the kidneys and decreases potassium blood concentration.
It increases potassium reabsorption by the kidneys and increases potassium blood concentration.

d

Renin is released from the JG apparatus in response to:
high blood pressure or increased NaCl in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule.
high blood pressure or decreased NaCl in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule.
low blood pressure or increased NaCl in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule.
low blood pressure or decreased NaCl in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule.

b

Angiotensin II triggers:
vasoconstriction and increased urine output from the kidneys.
vasoconstriction and decreased urine output from the kidneys.
vasodilation and increased urine output from the kidneys.
vasodilation and decreased urine output from the kidneys.

a

Angiotensin II causes a(n):
stimulation of the thirst center and increased release of ADH.
stimulation of the thirst center and decreased release of ADH.
inhibition of the thirst center and increased release of ADH.
inhibition of the thirst center and decreased release of ADH.

a

Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone.
True
False

c

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesized in the _________ and released from the _________.
anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary
anterior pituitary, hypothalamus
hypothalamus, posterior pituitary
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary

c

The stimuli that trigger the release of ADH are:
high blood pressure, high blood volume, and high blood osmolarity.
high blood pressure, low blood volume, and low blood osmolarity.
low blood pressure, low blood volume, and high blood osmolarity.
low blood pressure, high blood volume, and high blood osmolarity.
low blood pressure, low blood volume, and low blood osmolarity.

a

Decreased stretch of baroreceptors within the aorta and carotid arteries results in stimulation of the hypothalamus; this stimulation increases ADH secretion.
True
False

a

High levels of ADH cause:
vasoconstriction and therefore increases in blood pressure.
vasoconstriction and therefore decreases in blood pressure.
vasodilation and therefore increases in blood pressure.
vasodilation and therefore decreases in blood pressure.

b

In the brain ADH _______ the thirst center, and in the kidneys ADH causes an increase in water __________.
stimulates, secretion
stimulates, reabsorption
inhibits, secretion
inhibits, reabsorption

d

The adrenal gland releases aldosterone in response to:
ANP and increased blood plasma sodium levels.
ANP and decreased blood plasma sodium levels.
angiotensin II and increased blood plasma sodium levels.
angiotensin II and decreased blood plasma sodium levels.

b

The release of aldosterone is triggered by a decrease in blood plasma potassium levels.
True
False

b

Aldosterone causes kidney tubules to:
reabsorb more sodium, water, and potassium.
reabsorb more sodium and water, and secrete more potassium.
reabsorb more sodium, and secret more water and potassium.
secrete more sodium, water, and potassium.
secrete more sodium and reabsorb more potassium.

b

The stimulus that directly triggers release of ANP is:
decreased pressure detected by baroreceptors in the aorta and carotid arteries.
increased stretch of the heart atria.
increased saltiness in the cerebrospinal fluid bathing the hypothalamus of the brain.
increased saltiness of tubular fluid in the proximal convoluted tubule.

d

The hormone ANP causes systemic blood vessels to:
constrict, which raises blood pressure.
constrict, which lowers blood pressure.
dilate, which raises blood pressure.
dilate, which lowers blood pressure.

d

Atrial natriuretic peptide causes __________ of afferent arterioles and _________ of mesangial cells.
constriction, contraction
constriction, relaxation
dilation, contraction
dilation, relaxation

a

ANP causes an increase in the loss of sodium and water through urine.
True
False

a

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the release of aldosterone, ADH, and renin.
True
False

c

When blood starts to become too acidic, the kidneys respond by:
synthesizing and secreting bicarbonate ions while reabsorbing H+.
synthesizing and reabsorbing H+ while filtering bicarbonate ions.
synthesizing and reabsorbing bicarbonate ions while secreting H+.
decreasing filtration rate and increasing reabsorption of both bicarbonate ions and H+.
increasing filtration rate and increasing reabsorption of H+.

c

The process by which the kidneys eliminate excess acid or base is relatively:
quick (takes minutes) and powerful.
quick (takes minutes) but limited (is not very powerful).
slow (takes hours to days) but powerful.
slow (takes hours to days) and limited (is not very powerful).

a

If someone begins to hyperventilate due to anxiety, the CO2 concentration in their blood decreases; this causes __________ in blood pH.
an increase
a decrease
no change

b

If an individual's respiratory rate decreases, then blood CO2 levels:
rise, blood H+ levels rise, and blood pH rises.
rise, blood H+ levels rise, and blood pH falls.
rise, blood H+ levels fall, and blood pH falls.
fall, blood H+ levels rise, and blood pH rises.
fall, blood H+ levels fall, and blood pH falls.

b

Collectively, the renal and respiratory systems comprise the chemical buffering system of the body.
True
False

a

The bicarbonate buffering system is the most important buffering system in the extracellular fluid.
True
False

c

If a physiological condition resulted in blood pH reaching 7.2, but then physiological buffering systems brought the pH to 7.4, that increase in pH would be called:
acidosis.
alkalosis.
compensation.
imbalance.
partial noncompensation.

c

The most common type of acid-base imbalance is:
metabolic acidosis.
metabolic alkalosis.
respiratory acidosis.
respiratory alkalosis.

a

Hyperventilation leads to respiratory alkalosis.
True
False

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