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The rapid population increase since the Industrial Revolution occurred for all of the following reasons

increased food production lower infant mortality
advances in agriculture
invention of vaccines

What is the carrying capacity of the Earth for humans?

any estimate depends on who you ask and what assumptions they make

The question "which is more important, the survival of people alive today or conservation of the environment?" is difficult to answer. Answering this question demands:

value judgments

The following "when there is a serious, perhaps even irreversible, threat of environmental damage, then we should not wait for scientific proof before taking precautionary steps to prevent potential harm to the environment" defines..............?

Precautionary principle

As urban areas expand, wetlands are filled in, forests are cut, and soils are covered over and removed from productive use.

true

The example of the John Eli Miller Family in the textbook illustrates which of the following themes:

human population expansion

Throughout history, the human population ________.

mostly increased, but included some decreases most notably during the Black Death (bubonic plague)

hich of the following is not a major theme of environmental science:

science and values

The total effect of humans upon the environment is:

the product of the average impact per individual times the total number of individuals

Science is the search for __________ of the natural world, while technology is the search for __________ the natural world for human benefit.

understanding; control of

If the current growth rate of Northern Europe is 0.2% then the doubling time of this area will be:

350 years

Inverted age structure pyramid occurs when:

a population has more older than younger pre- and reproductive age people

The type of growth illustrated by the human race during the past 2,000 years is _______ growth.

exponential

95% of the human population resides in the developed countries of the world.

false

The total effect of humans upon the environment is:

the product of the average impact per individual times the total number of individuals

Which of the following factors will cause the human population size to decrease as a whole, but will effect only some ages and genders?

war

Today predictions place human population between 6.6 and 6.9 billion, confirming that in the last ...........years numbers have doubled.

60

The 10 million Hungarians have annual growth rate of 1%. At this growth rate it will take.............. years for the population to double in size.

70

Decreased death rate and the accelerated rate of human population growth are related to:

improved sanitation and health
increased food supply
control of disease-spreading organisms

Epidemic diseases include all of the following except:

cancer

In a developing country, chronic diseases account for a _________ proportion of total mortality. Acute diseases account for a _________ proportion of total mortality.

small; large

Rapid human population growth puts an especially heavy burden on:

rapid human population growth burdens all of the above

Human demography suggests that an improving economy in a country correlates with:

decreased birth rate, decreased population growth rate

Which of the following gives an example of an acute and a chronic disease:

influenza and heart disease

The demographic transition occurs in three stages. Under which circumstance is a nation unable to make the transition from stage II to stage III:

when parents don't see the benefit from having few but well educated children

The simplest and one of the least controversial means of slowing population growth is:

delaying first childbearing

Zero population growth results when the number of births equals the number of deaths so that there is no net change in the size of the population.

true

With global warming scientists worry that more females turtles will offset the balance within snapping turtle populations. A scientist is studying the effect of temperature on turtle sex differentiation. He grows 300 turtle eggs in temperature controlled nests on Tybee Island, Georgia. 100 of were grown at ambient temperatures, 100 were grown at 25˚C and 100 at 30˚C. All other conditions are kept are kept constant throughout the experiment. After 57 days he measures presence of long ovary (female) or short testis (male). His independent and dependent variables are:

independent: temperature dependent: presence of long ovary or short testis

Which of the following are among the causes of indirect deforestation?

demand for firewood

Based on value predictions and recent writings discussed in class like 'The New Population Bomb' by Goldstone, human population is predicted to reach....... billion by 2050

9

Random changes in the frequencies of traits in a population are called

genetic drift

The Environmental Science textbook outlines the relatively simple food chain that exists in hot springs such as in Yellowstone National Park, including the following organisms:
(X) herbivorous flies
(B) carnivorous flies
(C) decomposers
(F) photosynthetic bacteria
What would be the correct order of these organisms from lowest trophic level to highest trophic level:

F, X, B, C;

If the current growth rate of Nicaragua is 2% then the doubling time for this country is:

70 years

Positive feedback....

accelerates change

An ecology class samples fish in a nearby stream. They identify 5 bluegill sunfish, 3 yellowhead shiners, 4 mosquito fish, 1 tessellated darter, and 1 eel. What is species richness of this community?

5

Biological diversity is defined as:

the variety of life forms on earth

After reading the article 'No Babies?', how would you describe the age structure diagram of a country like Italy, Latvia, or Greece?

pyramid with a very narrow base.

Excess population growth is considered a consequence of poverty and exploitation. This statement best matches the perspective of ____________.

Karl Marx

Growth occurs at a constant rate per time period
The doubling time of a population

is a function of exponential growth

The total effect of humans upon the environment is:

the product of the average impact per individual times the total number of individuals (could be for a country, region etc.)

In the following example, assume that input = output and ART= S/F, where S = size of reservoir/waterbody and F = rate of transfer (discharge) within it.

-Stream A consists of 1,000 m3 of water, and it discharges 50 m3/hour
-Lake B consists of 150,000 m3of water, and it discharges 200 m3/hour
-River C consists of 10,000 m3of water, and it discharges 100 m3/hour
-Aquifer D consists of 50,000 m3of water, and it discharges 50 m3/hour

If _________became contaminated with 500 m3of oil-based paint, it would be the fastest of the four bodies of water to cleanse itself as a running waterbody. In contrast, if __________ was used for irrigation and overused (over half depleted) as a source of water, it would be the slowest to recover its total volume.

Stream A Aquifer D

Justification that sees some aspect of the environment as valuable because it provides individuals with economic benefits

utilitarian

If site 1 had 20 species and site 2 had 10 species with 5 of the species appearing in both sites, define species richness for site 2:

10

Breast feeding can potentially slow population growth because:

it increases the average number of years between births

Human demography suggests that an improving economy in a country correlates with

decreased birth rate, decreased population growth rate

A species upon which the entire ecosystem depends on is called a(n):

keystone species

Which of the following is an example of three different species on three different trophic levels, listed from lowest level to highest:

moss, reindeer, wolves

An uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many electrons does boron have

5

The four most common elements in living organisms are

C, H, O, N

The reservoirs and pathways that any chemical element follows through the Earth's system is called the:

Biochemical Cycle

In a covalent bond, atoms __________ electrons.

share

The pathway by which carbon is transferred from living biota to the atmosphere is called:

respiration

In the context of biochemical cycles, "flux" refers to:

the transfer of material or energy from one reservoir to another.

The rock cycle depends on the ________ cycle to lift mass above sea level and the ________ cycle to supply the force of erosion.

tectonic & hydrologic

An element with a gaseous phase under conditions at the surface of the Earth tends to ____________ much more rapidly than an element without a gas phase.

recycle

Fluxes of nitrogen both into and out of the atmosphere are controlled predominantly by:

the activity of microscopic bacteria

The tectonic cycle refers to the creation, destruction, and recycling of:

the crust of the earth

The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical cycles. However, molecular nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is not a significant element for life because:

N2 is relatively inert and must be transformed to ammonia or other nitrogen compounds in order to be useful 100%

The original source of energy that drives the hydrologic cycle is:

solar energy

Many higher organisms have evolved symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. This is because:

the microorganisms transform nitrogen into forms useful to the higher organisms

The following chemical equation describes which process:
6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2

photosynthesis

The second law of thermodynamics states that energy always changes from a more useful, higher quality form to a less useful, lower quality form.

True

These organisms live at or near deep ocean vents and derive energy from inorganic sulfur compounds:

Chemautotrophs

Net production equals:

Change in biomass over time

Energy efficiency is the

ratio of energy input to energy output

Photosynthetic autotrophs, at the first trophic level, get their food from:

inorganic chemicals and sunlight

What is meant by energy "fixation"?

the transfer of light energy to energy in chemicals of an organic compounds

Monoculture is associated with:

decrease in ecosystem biodiversity and organic matter in the soil

Immediately after a fire, vegetation grows back extremely rapidly mainly because:

there is an increase in the availability of chemical elements

Which of the following does not represent reduction of erosion by vegetation?

Vegetation holds the soil in place with its roots

Which of the terms below refers to the farming of foods in marine and freshwater habitats:

aquaculture

The reason that weeds compete so effectively against agricultural crops and must be inhibited or removed is that:

weeds are early successional species and naturally do well on cleared land

According to the Environmental Science text, what is the key to food production in the future?

increased food production per unit area

Increased production of food in the past has depended on ________ and _________.

improved soil types, cash crops

Goals for genetic engineering of crop species include all of the following except:

plants that spread freely to any and all open areas

Eating low on the food chain is more efficient than eating high on it. However according to the Environmental Science text, conversion of all present rangeland to crop land would increase environmental damage because:

not all land is suitable for agriculture; some is better suited to grazing

About 11% of the Earth's surface (excluding Antarctica) is under agriculture. In simple terms, if the world's human population doubles in the future, then either the total agricultural acreage must double or else __________ must double.

agricultural yield per acre

What is the relationship between farming and ecological succession:

farming keeps the land in a successional stage

Agriculture in less developed countries can be significantly affected by all of the following except:

crops circles

Which of the following terms refers to a set of methods to control pest organisms by using natural ecological interactions:

biological control

Integrated Pest Management:

considers effects of the pest-control method on the entire ecosystem

Even fertile land not naturally threatened can undergo desertification. Around the world, this has been most widely caused by:

overgrazing

What is the principle drawback of broad-spectrum pesticides?

toxic to beneficial organisms and humans

The type of soil at a particular site depends on many factors. Which of the following is not a factor influencing the soil type?

biomagnification

Use of predators, parasites, and competitors for pest control defines which of the following?

biological pest control

Soil eroded from one location has to go somewhere else. A lot of it is washed down streams and rivers. Which of the following is not a form of environmental degradation associated with eroding soils?

global warming

The purpose of adding a "terminator gene" to a genetically modified crop species is to prevent:

the crop from producing seeds for the following year

A scientific statement that can be proven or disproven is called

hypothesis

Which of the following examples describes the maximum number of a particular species that an environment can support without degrading the environment?

carry capacity

The question "Which is more important, the survival of people alive today or conservation of the environment?" is difficult to answer. Answering this question demands:

value judgements

Your sister is trying to convince you to donate money to save the rainforest. She explains that the rainforest is beautiful and that beauty is important and valuable to people. Her reasoning is an example of:

Aesthetic Justification

A hypothesis is defined as:

a statement that can be disprove

Throughout history, the human population ________.

mostly increased, but included some decreases most notably during the Black Death (bubonic plague)

One distinction between (A) science and (B) religion, ethics, and morals is that scientific statements are:

disprovable

Scientific Method:

observations -> hypothesis -> controlled experiment -> conclusions

Communities are:

a group of populations of different species living in the same local area & interact with one another.

Identify hazard, dose response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization is:

4 steps in risk assessment

Soylazyme

grows algae in large closed containers without sunlight by feeding the algae exclusively to non-feed sugar.

Precession

degree in which repeated measurements unchanged conditions show the same results.

Negative Feedback

occurs when the system's response is the opposite direction of output. A good thing in science. Stabilizing & relatively constant condition.

What is a steady state of a system & equilibrium?

Dynamic Equilibrium, material or energy is entering & leaving the system in equal amounts, opposing occur on equal rates.

What country with a great annual increase in population size? What two approaches being used in this country to deal with rapid pop. growth?

China. People produce babies faster than the death rate. 1)Limiting to 1 child per family.2)Waiting later to have a child.

Compound

substance containing two or more elements in fixed ratio.

Species Eveness

relative abundance of species

species dominance

most abundant species

Open System

some energy or material moves into or out of the system

Closed System

no energy movement into or out of the system

gaia hypothesis

life has greatly altered the earths environment for more than 3 billion years.

Thomas Mathus

High population growth leads to poverty & starvation.

In a covalent bond, atoms __________ electrons.

share

When full, the innermost electron shell of an atome contains_________ electrons & th eouter most shell contains ____________ electrons.

2 & 8

Explain the ways human behavior contributes to the success of the frogs in Australia?

Some people feed them. Lights are left on at night which concentrates insects which they prey on. We provide hiding places for them.

Why are species threatened, endangered, extirpated, or extinct?

Habitat Alteration. Invasive Species. Pollution. Population Growth. Over Exploitation.

Monoculture production of crops is more vulnerable to outbreaks of diseases because this type of farming__________________.

simplifies the ecosystem.

Toxicology

studies adverse effects of a toxicant organism

Positive Feedback

occurs when an increase in output leads to further increase in output. Bad in science destabilizes the environment.

Maximum Lifetime

Longest genetically predetermined age to which an individual of species can live.

Sustainablity

resources of the environment

Causes for indirect deforestation

Acid Rain & Ozone

Moral Perspective

the belief that various aspects of the environment have a right to exist & that it is our moral obligation to allow them to continue or help them persist.

Proposals for reducing gasoline consumption in the U.S. include all of the following except:

use of more high-sulfur coals

The Phosphorus Cycle

moving phosphorus throughout the biosphere & lithosphere

Photovolaics

direct conversion of electricity using sunlight without using an intermediate fluid medium

The sodium atom contains 11 electrons, 11 protons, & 12 neutrons. What is the mass # of sodium?

23

Habitat Diversity

different kinds of habitats in a given unit area

Food supply is the 2nd largest use of _____________ next to cars.

fossil fuels

Feedbacks

occurs when the system also serves as an input leading to further changes in the system.

Fuel cells are highly efficient power plants that produce electricity by combining __________ & _______________ in an electrochemical reaction.

fuel & oxygen

Open-pond Method

growing algae in a sericus of large, eco-friendly pond situated outside.

Hydrogen is the most common ________________

fuel types

Vertigro

grows algae naturally but in bag-like containers suspended in outside air for optimum sunlight exposure.

What is the energy that is stored; example, the gravitational energy of water behind a dam.

potential energy

3 Functions of parks, nature preserves, wilderness areas & green spaces:

Protect from development, harvesting, public ownership & regulation.

What are the 6 major themes of environmental science?

human population growth, sustainability, global perspective, urbanizing world, people/nature, science/values

Carbon Cycle

carbon combines with & is chemically & biologically linked with cycles of oxygen & hydrogen that form major compounds of life.

Sustainable Ecosystem

harvesting a resource that is still able to maintain its essential functions

Geothermal Energy

useful conversion of natural heat from the interior of the earth.

Which of the following terms refers to energy produced from any source other than fossil fuels:

alternative energy

All of the following are options to reduce the air pollution caused by coal combustion except

use of more high-sulfur coals

Environmental and/or human health impacts from strip mining include?

Flooding, landscape change and soil erosion

Which of these sets of adjectives all describe the formation of oil, gas, and coal?

organic, buried, not oxidized

All of the following are renewable energy sources except

nuclear fission

There is no energy crisis, because people living in industrialized countries can stay at the same standards without reducing their per capita energy use of 7.5kW, while people from underdeveloped countries increase their usage from 1 kW to 7.5 kW in the next 20 years and get the same advantages.

false

Oil is:

organic matter transformed into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons

Which of the following is not true about the first law of thermodynamics?

energy is the material that makes up our physical and biological environments

Which of the following leads to acid rain?

coal combustion

Estimates predict that globally, the most abundant fossil energy source is

coal

Which of the following correctly describes global fossil fuel distribution?

The US has large coal reserves and the Middle East has the largest proven oil reserves

Which of the following activities leads to acid rain?

Coal combustion

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