CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS, RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS, METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, & METABOLIC ALKALOSIS and 2 others

44 terms by igorot 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

ASTHMA.
ATELECTASIS.
BRAIN TRAUMA.
BRONCHIECTASIS.
BRONCHITIS.
CNS DEPRESSANTS.
EMPHYSEMA.
HYPOVENTILATION.
PULMONARY EDEMA.
PNEUMONIA.
PULMONARY EMBOLI.

RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS

FEVER.
HYPERVENTILATION.
HYPOXIA.
HYSTERIA.
PAIN.
OVERVENTILATION CAUSED BY MECHANICAL VENTILATORS.

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

DIABETES MELLITUS.
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS.
EXCESSIVE DIGESTION OF ASPIRIN.
HIGH-FAT DIET.
INSUFFICIENT METABOLISM OF CARBS.
MALNUTRITION.
RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
RENAL FAILURE.
SEVERE DIARRHEA.

METABOLIC ALKALOSIS

DIURETICS.
EXCESSIVE VOMITTING.
EXCESSIVE SUCTIONING.
HYPERALDOSTERONISM.
INGESTION/INFUSION OF EXCESS SODIUM BICARBONATE.
MASSIVE TRANSFUSION OF WHOLE BLOOD.

what 2 things cause RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS?

Drugs (barbiturates, morphine)
Disease (emphysema, pneumonia)

whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS caused by DRUGS?

INHIBIT RESPIRATORY CENTER

whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS caused by DISEASE?

HYPOVENTILATION

what 3 things cause METABOLIC ACIDOSIS?

Diabetes mellitus
Ingestion of ammonium
Diarrhea

whats the rationale for METABOLIC ACIDOSIS caused by DIABETES MELLITUS?

Inability to use glucose can lead to an accumulation of acids. Excess bicarbs may be excreted

whats the rationale for METABOLIC ACIDOSIS caused by INGESTION OF AMMONIUM?

Ammonium ions (NH4+) salts can donate H+s

whats the rationale for METABOLIC ACIDOSIS caused by DIARRHEA?

loss of bild and bicarbs from pancreas and intestine

what 2 things cause RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS?

High altitude exposure
Emotional disorders or aspirin (salicylate) poisoning

whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS caused by HIGH ALTITUDE EXPOSURE?

Prolonged exposure above 13,000ft may stimulate hyperventilation

whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS caused by EMOTIONAL DISORDERS OR ASPIRIN (SALICYLATE) POISONING?

Stimulates hyperventilation

what 3 things cause METABOLIC ALKALOSIS?

Ingestion of excess alkali (bicarb or antacids)
Prolonged vomiting of gastric contents
Some diuretics

whats the rationale for METABOLIC ALKALOSIS caused by INGESTION OF EXCESS ALKALI (BICARB OR ANTACIDS)?

May cause excess bicarb ions in body fluids

whats the rationale for METABOLIC ALKALOSIS caused by PROLONGED VOMITING OF GASTRIC CONTENTS?

Loss of chloride from stomach lowers acid levels leaving excess alkaline bicarb

whats the rationale for METABOLIC ALKALOSIS caused by SOME DIURETICS?

Stimulate Cl- and Na+ excretion or loss thus leaving excess bicarb

Physiological pH must be maintained at what level?

1. Physiological pH must be maintained between the range of 7.35-7.45.

What are the reasons pH must be maintained

There are many reasons that pH must be maintained. For one imbalances in distribution of hydrogen ions (H+) cause shifts in other ions such as sodium and potassium. Changes in sodium and potassium ion distribution affect the function of many bodily processes, including the function of the heart and nervous system.

What exists in body to maintain pH

2. Numerous buffering systems exist in body to maintain pH

What is the primary buffering system

a. Primary buffering system is Bicarbonate (base) - Carbonic acid (acid) system.

What 2 organs regulate the buffering system

Regulation of this buffering system is controlled by the lung and kidney.

What are the 2 acids involved in the buffering system

B. Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering system: (FYI H2CO3/HCO3-)

What does carbon dioxide form in the buffering system?

1. Carbonic acid forms from carbon dioxide.

Explain the process of how the lungs regulate carbonic acid levels.

The lungs regulate carbonic acid levels and compensate for changes in blood pH by changing ventilation. In other words, by modulating ventilation, the lung can increase the amount of carbonic acid (making blood more acidic) or decrease the amount of carbonic acid (making blood less acidic).

What organ regulates bicarbonate

Kidneys are responsible for the regulation of bicarbonate levels in the body.

How does the kidney regulate bicarbonate levels?

2. The kidney regulates bicarbonate levels by excreting more bicarbonate or increasing reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate.

Can the kidney generate new bicarbonate?

Yes, the kidney also generates new bicarbonate.

Acidosis

results when blood pH drops below 7.35

Alkalosis

results when blood pH increases above 7.45

Name the two descriptive terms that relate to the source of the changes in pH.

1. "Respiratory" refers to a pH change caused by increased or decreased carbonic acid
2. "Metabolic" refers to a pH change caused by increased or decreased bicarbonate and/or from metabolic processes

Name the 4 types of acidosis/alkalosis

1. "Respiratory acidosis" = caused by increased carbonic acid.
2. "Respiratory alkalosis" =caused by decreased carbonic acid.
3. "Metabolic acidosis" = caused by decreased bicarbonate, and/or buildup of acids from metabolic processes.
4. "Metabolic alkalosis" = caused by increased bicarbonate.

III. What causes disturbances in pH?

A. Metabolic acidosis - this is quite common in medical practice. Examples include:
1. Kidney failure
2. Ketosis = excess production of ketone bodies (examples: "ketoacidosis" in diabetes) in malnutrition, people on "ketonic diets" for weight loss)
3. Lactic acidosis (over-production of lactic acid that occurs from heart failure -> hypoxia resulting in anaerobic glucose metabolism).
4. Take note of the fact that the problem doesn't necessary begin with the kidney - but it reflects difference in bicarbonate levels caused by "metabolic" processes throughout body.

Describe Respiratory acidosis

1. Caused by failure of lungs to excrete CO2 efficiently.
2. Occurs with certain lung diseases such as emphysema, COPD.

Describe Metabolic alkalosis

Can be caused by loss of gastric acid (vomiting) or over-neutralization with antacids.

Describe Respiratory alkalosis

Caused by hyperventilation leading to "blowing off" too much CO2.

Describe compensatory mechanisms used by the body in response to: A: Metabolic acidosis

1. Increased ventilation (hyperventilation) to release more CO2 (decrease PaCO2 and thus carbonic acid).
2. Kidney retains/forms more bicarbonate, excretes more H+

Describe compensatory mechanisms used by body in response to: B. Respiratory acidosis

Kidney retains/forms additional bicarbonate, excretes more H+

Describe Compensatory mechanisms used by body in response to:A. Metabolic acidosis

1. Increased ventilation (hyperventilation) to release more CO2 (decrease PaCO2 and thus carbonic acid).
2. Kidney retains/forms more bicarbonate, excretes more H+

Describe Compensatory mechanisms used by body in response to B. Respiratory acidosis

Kidney retains/forms additional bicarbonate, excretes more H+
C. Metabolic alkalosis Compensatory mechanisms are not particularly effective

Describe compensatory mechanisms used by body in response to: D. Respiratory alkalosis.

Kidney conserves H+ and increases excretion of bicarbonate.

Describe compensatory mechanisms used by body in response to: C. Metabolic alkalosis

Compensatory mechanisms are not particularly effective

Normal lab values
pH 7.35 - 7.45

...

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set