Increase venous return-increase ____-increase active cross bridges- increase force of contraction- increase_____
stretch, stroke volume
Blood brain barrier is most permeable to which of the following chemicals
glucose, water, oxygen, alcohol and caffeine
Nerve fibers firing 300 times per second at time A and 500 times per second it means that
the stimulus was stronger at time B
A typical neuron will have a membrane voltage of about ___ at the time when sodium gates close and potassium ions begin rapidly leaving the cell.
In an autopsy a pathologist found an area of brain tissue with very high concentrations of microglia. That area of the brain most likely
had been damaged by infection, trauma, or stroke.
Your ___ division will stimulate an increase in heart rate increase BP and reduce the blood flow to your skin and digestive tract, and your ___ system will enable you to.
sympathetic; somatic system
All of the following events occur when a nerve signal reaaches a synaptic knob. The one that occurs first is ____.
calcium ions enter the synaptic knob.
During its_____, a neuron responds only to stimuli stronger than a normal threshold stimulus.
relative refractory period
The brain area that regulates activites that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ____.
Propranolol, block B1 and B2 receptors. This popular drug is used-
to lower blood pressure by decreasing the heart rate.
White rami carry ___ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.
myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated preganglionic
The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the ___.
absolute refractory period
A neurotransmitter, such a glycine, attaches to a ligand receptors and causes hyperpolarization. This neurotransmitter would most likely cause-
inhibitoryy local potential
In the ANS, the preganglionic neurons releases____, while the postganglionic neurons releases____.
ACh; ACh or NE
You stand up quickly and the arterial pressure in the carotid artery drops. Receptors in the wall of the carotid artery are sensitive to stretching of the wall, which is caused by changes in blood pressure. The signals from these receptors are carried to the CNS by neurons in the __division.
In _____, several EPSPs occuring in quick succession depolarize a neuron to threshold.
You are following the signals from a sensory neuron to the spinal cord where it synapses with motor neuron that leaves the spinal cord and synapses on a skeletal muscle
dorsal root→ dorsal horn→ ventral horn→ ventral root→ spinal nerve
If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon__.
An excitatory local potential reaches the trigger zone at the axon hillock and causes a depolarization to -60 millivolts. The trigger zone will most likely -
not open voltage-regulated gates and not fire an action potential.
A neural circuit in which a single impule is transmitted over and over is a ____.
Motor neurons of the somatic motor nervous system have their nerve cell bodies, or somas, in the
The charge difference across the plasma membrane in muscles and nerve cells is called the __and measures about __ millivolts.
resting potential; -70
The sodium-potassium pump __
pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside.
The vasomotor tone of the blood vessels is an effect of continual stimulation by sympathetic neurons.
Norepinephrines always stimulates its target cells whereas acetylcholine always inhibits them.
In the resting state, there is a larger K ion flux out of the cell than Na ion flux into the cell
Taylor complains of hyperreflexia in the left lower extremity and a decrease in all sensory modalities in the left lower extemity. lesion occurs in-
right medial cortex of the frontal and parietal lobe
Sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all of the following but
synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in same trunk ganglion
Sensory information about discrimanatory touch to lower limbs___.
gracile fasciullus tracts, decussate or corss over in the medulla oblongata
Motor tracts involved in reflex movements of the head in response to auditory stimuli
John had an accident that destroyed his entire left cerebrum. Motor deficits in-
hyprreflexis on right side of body
Washington has lost all sensory modalities in dermatomes T7 and below on both sides of the body. Injury found in-
both the left and right hemispheres of the spinal cord at T6
Which artery if blocked could explain sensor deficits for Washintong's lower extremeities-
anterior spinal artery
After determined location of lesion in Washinton, ____ tract, and still intact the ___spinal region.
Janet Jackson has a left cerebrovascular accident. Right limbs are injured and unable to button shirt. unable to localize or passive flexion. Lesion-
primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex
Mike who is right handed just suffered a cerebrovascular accident involving middle cerebral artery-
This hormone enhances amino acid transport into cells and increases protein synthesis, catabolizes fat for energy, and promotes glycogen synthesis.
The stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress, and the body's homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when
the energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
An individual has type B, Rh positive blood. The individual has the __antigens and __ antibodies.
A, Rh negative; b, Rh positive
In mitral stenosis, one of the most common forms of valvular heart disease, when the ventricle contract blood will leak back into the
__ is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces a negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood.
When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles also contract, which
tightens the chordae tendineae preventing the AV valvue from prolapsing
In__, target cells reduce the number of receptors for a hormone in response to long-term overstimulation.
According to the principle of __, blood near the middle of an artery flows faster than blood near its walls. Just as water flows faster in the middle of a river than it does near shore
Red blood cells have two peripheral proteins, spectrin and actin, that-
permits RBCs to squeeze through capillaries
You have all seen movies of people stranded in the ocean aboard lifeboats. The people are surrounded by water and yet they cannot drink the seawater. The seawater would -
increase the blood osmolarity, and the tissue would become more dehydrated.
These drugs have an effect on reducing the blood pressure of a hypertensive patient
calcium channel blockers, diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors
A heart rate of 45 bpm and an absence of P waves from the electrocardiogram would suggest
damage to SA node
If a person's arterial blood pressure measures 130/85, the mean arterial blood pressure is
The pressure peaks at about __mmHg in the left ventricle and at about __ mmHg in the right ventricle.
120 and 25
Most of the following hormones bind to receptors at the cell surface except__ that binds to receptors in the cytoplasm.
An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for myocardial infarctions is
arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation.
An emergency room patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is found to have blood type B+. He needs blood, and only the following types are available. Which would be the safest to administer?
The rennin-angiotensin mechanism serves to increase blood pressure by causing the secretion of which hormone?
People who stand for long periods have pressure buildup, particularly in the superficial vessels, which may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
destruction of valves in the wall of a vein
The __ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of the cellular remains.
Which of the following correctly traces the four conditions from cause of effect?
insulin hyposecretion→ accelerated fat catabolism→ ketonuria→ dieresis
Anaphylactic shock can be caused by a hypersensitive allergic reaction, which individuals can have to such things as a bee sting or to penicillin. These individuals have massive release of histamine, which causes __ of blood vessles and __in arterials blood pressure.
The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not part of the cardiovascular system is the
Any form of anemia that results from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified as
You are looking at differential WBC counts for two patients. One patient has a parasitic infection while the other has a viral infection. The patient with the parasitic infection would have a high__ differential count, while the patient with a viral infection would have a high __ differential count.
In response to stress, the adrenal cortex releases cortisol . what stimulates the release of cortisol?
hypothalamus releases CRH to the anterior pituitary, which releases ACTH
After about 120 days and 700 miles , red blood cells become fragile due to the deterioration of the peripheral protein called __. The cell fragment are phagocytized by __ in the sleen and liver.
In the cardiovascular system, the __ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the __side of the heart.
In type II diabetes, a problem with which type of metabolism is responsible for all of the following symptoms: ketonuria, ketoacidosis, deep gasping breaths, polyuria, and polydipsia.
If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL, end-systolic volume is 35mL, and ejection fraction is 0.86, then the stroke volume must be
In a myleniated neuron carrying an action potential the next node of Ranvier will be stimulated by
Sodium ions down the fiber to the next adajcent node
All of the following events occur when the nerve signal reaches a synaptic node is-
calcium ions enter the synaptic cleft
In an autopsy pathologist fina an area of brain tissue with a high concentration of microglei. That section of the brain was most likely effected by-
infection, trauma or storke
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as playing piano but not have paralysis must suggest damage to
pre motor cortex
You are following the signals ffrom a sensory neuron with synapse with a motor neuron whats the route?
dorsal root- synapse dorsal horn- synapse ventral horn- ventral root- spinal nerve
Why arterioles are known as resistance vessels because-
contraction and relaxation can change diameter
Influence of blood vessels diameter is significant because resistant is inversely propotional to-
the 4th power of the vessel radius
Man with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Stroke Volume
50mL/beat; more blood being pumped out of right ventricle than left
Lowering man's heartbeat to 75 beats per minute results in
shock because cardiac output would have plummeted
One role of macrophages is to "present" antigens so that helper T cells can recognize them.
Natural killer cells are lymphocytes that do depend on recognition of a specific foreign antigen.
Lymphocytes similar to T-Cells, but called __, recognize and destroy tumors in a nonspecific fashion, without requiring prior exposure to tumor antigens.
natural killer cells
These are "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you.
major histocompatibility complex proteins
Inhaled foreign objects tend to lodge more in the right bronchus because it
wider and more ventrical than the left
Suppose that atmospheric pressure at a given time is 765 mmHg, the intrapleural pressure during inspiration is 759 mmHg, and the intrapulmonary pressure is 763 mmHg. Under these conditions the transpulmonary pressure would be
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary __that cannot be absorbed into the capillaries.
The narrow air passages which cause turbulence are called__ and are lined by __.
meatuses; ciliated pseudostratified columnar
Suppose a person has a tidal volume of 650 mL, an inspiratory reserve volume of 3,400 mL, an anatomic dead space of 155 mL, and a respiratory rate of 14 breaths/min. what would be the value of his alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)?
6.93 L/ min
Antibodies work in a similar fashion; they bind to pathogens and expose sites to activate
release of interleukins
You have a closed container full of air with a pressure of 760mmHg. Oxygen makes up 21% of the air. The pressure of the air just due to oxygen is __mmHg.
The human immunodeficiency virus contains the enzyme __that stimulates host cells that produce DNA from viral __.
reverse transcriptive; RNA
To help expel abdominopelvic contents during urination, defecation, or childbirth, we often take a deep breath, hold it, and then contract the abdominal muscles. This is called the
Neutrophils produce a respiratory burst, which destroys more bacteria than can be destroyed by phagocytosis. A respiratory burst results from the formation of a __that reacts with H+ to form __.
superoxide anion; hydrogen peroxide
This lymphatic organ is very large in the fetus. It begins to shrink after the age of 14 and is replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue in the elderly.
Stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress, and the body's homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when
energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
Suppose 1 molecule of hormone x activated 10G proteins, each G protein activated 10 adenylate cyclase molecules, each adenylate cyclase made 1000cAMP molecules, and each cAMP activated 1000 enzyme molecules. This would be the result of
hypersecretion of GH can cause gigntism if it begins in childhood, but is more likely to cause ____ if it begins in adulthood.
Stress response, or GAS, primarily involves the elevated levels or these two hormones?
EP and cortisol
lymphatic trunks converge to form right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct, these drain into
compement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phatocytes by neutrophils and macrophages in a process called
autoregulation hypothesis links blood flow to stretch of vasculor smooth muscle
myogenic hypothesis of autoregulation
noninsulin dependent diabetes results when
insulin is secreted but target cells lack receptors for it
special lymphatic vessels valled lacteals absorb dietary ____ that cannot be absorted into capillaries.
Neutrophils produce respiratory burst, which destroys more bacteria that can be destroyed by phagocytosis. Respiratory burst from the formulation of superoxide anion that reacts with H+ to from _____.