nutrition chapter 6 9 and 10

74 terms by giraffeylove14 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Which of the following would describe the state of nitrogen balance of a person who ingested 16 g of food nitrogen and lost 19 g of nitrogen?
Question options:
Equilibrium
Positive balance
Negative balance
Exogenous balance

Negative balance

What is the usual state of nitrogen balance for healthy infants, children, and pregnant women?
Question options:
Equilibrium
Metabolic
Positive
Negative

positive

Which statement is true of a vegan diet?
Question options:
*very young children and the elderly may not consume enough plant sources of protein to build and maintain bone and muscle tissue
*a woman on a vegan diet will have excellent stores of nutrients needed for pregnancy
*well-fed vegan children are the same height and weight as meat-eating children
*vegan children's daily protein requirement is less than meat-eating children's

very young children and the elderly may not consume enough plant sources of protein to build and maintain bone and muscle tissue

A(n) _____ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein.
Question options:
peptide
amino acid
denatured
sulfur

peptide

A boy 10 years old is going through a growth spurt. Because he needs to build new muscle tissue, what should his nitrogen status be?
Question options:
positive nitrogen balance
negative nitrogen balance
nitrogen equilibrium
nitrogen deficiency

positive nitrogen balance

Which of the following are precursors of urea synthesis?
Question options:
All amino acids
Animal proteins only
Essential amino acids only
Nonessential amino acids only

All amino acids

Which of the following food groups does not provide significant protein?
Question options:
fruits
grains
vegetables
milk, yogurt and cheese

Fruits

Which of the following is a protein catalyst, which acts on other substances to change them chemically?
Question options:
hormone
antibody
lipoprotein
enzyme

enzyme

A child with marasmus would exhibit all of the following symptoms except:
Question options:
severe weight loss.
dry, thin, and wrinkled skin.
apathy.
edema.

edema

The calorie-deficiency disease resulting from chronic starvation is known most specifically as:
Question options:
protein-calorie malnutrition.
kwashiorkor.
marasmus.
protein-energy malnutrition.

marasmus

What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins?
Question options:
50-65
70-75
80-85
90-99

90-99

Compared to meat eaters, vegetarians tend to have:
Question options:
higher death rates from heart disease.
healthier body weights.
lower blood pressure.
a and b
b and c

b and c

What change in body function will occur in a child with marasmus?
Question options:
*metabolism will speed up and burn calories more rapidly
*muscles will not develop but bones will grow, resulting in a tall, thin stature
*the digestive tract develops dysentery, which results in diarrhea and mineral loss
*the body will be able to repair itself if a very-high-fat diet is given as therapy

the digestive tract develops dysentery, which results in diarrhea and mineral loss

Negative nitrogen balance occurs in:
Question options:
a surgery patient.
growing children.
pregnant women.
lactating women.

surgery patient

Of the following foods, which likely contains the most easily digestible protein?
Question options:
oats
whole wheat
potatoes
tuna

Tuna

Which of the following defines protein turnover?
Question options:
The sum of protein in food and the body
The sum of protein synthesis and degradation
The amount of protein absorbed from the diet
The amount of protein used to synthesize glucose

The sum of protein synthesis and degradation

What is the chief function of pepsin?
Question options:
Emulsifies dietary proteins
Activates hydrochloric acid
Activates pancreatic proteases
Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides

Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides

What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
Question options:
Pepsin
Transaminase
Pancreatic protease
Intestinal peptidase

pepsin

Which of the following cooking methods would you use to increase the digestibility of protein?
Question options:
frying
stewing
grilling
baking

stewing

If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
Question options:
Body cells will synthesize it
Protein synthesis will be limited
Health will not be affected as long as other nutrients are adequate
Proteins will be made but they will lack that particular amino acid

protein synthesis will be limited

Which of the following provides amino acids that are best absorbed by the body?
Question options:
legumes
animal proteins
grains
vegetables

animal protein

The strategy of combining two incomplete plant protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food is called:
Question options:

mutual happiness
complementation.
simultaneous augmentation.
a and b
b and c

Complementation

The DRI for protein for healthy adults is _____ gram(s) per kilogram of body weight.
Question options:
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.5

0.8

Which of the following activities depletes glycogen most quickly?
Question options:
Hiking
Jogging
Walking
Quarter-mile run

Quarter-mile run

To prevent hyponatremia during prolonged events, athletes should:
Question options:
drink large amounts of water over the course of the event.
favor sports drinks over water.
eat pretzels in the last half of a long event.
a and b
b and c

b and c

Anaerobic glucose breakdown produces a compound called _____ that accumulates in the tissues and blood.
Question options:
urea
lactate
uric acid
amino acid

Lactate

If muscle work is anaerobic, which of the following cannot serve as fuel?
Question options:
Fat
Protein
Carbohydrate

fat

The body's need for _____ far surpasses that for any other nutrient.
Question options:
fat
water
carbohydrate
protein

water

What is the Cori cycle?
Question options:
A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactate released by muscles
A sequence of coordinated muscle contractions of slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers
An exercise machine that allows development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities
A group of enzymatic reactions that accelerate muscle glycogen repletion in trained athletes

A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactate released by muscles

Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition in physical activity?
Question options:
*Protein is not a major fuel for physical activity
*Body protein synthesis rates increase about 10% during physical activity
*Protein contributes 30% more to total fuel used for physical activity than during rest
*Body protein synthesis rates decline about 30% for several hours after physical activity

Protein is not a major fuel for physical activity

he first symptom of dehydration (besides thirst) is:
Question options:
hypoglycemia.
heavy breathing.
heat stroke.
fatigue.

fatigue

During exercise the optimal beverage for replacing fluids is:
Question options:
a beverage that supplies glucose.
fruit juice.
cool water.
a salt solution.

cool water

To consume an adequate amount of B vitamins, magnesium, and chromium an athlete should eat:
Question options:
meats.
whole grains.
leafy vegetables.
milk.

whole grains

As physical activity continues beyond the first few minutes, which of the following flows into the bloodstream to signal the liver and fat cells to liberate their stored energy nutrients?
Question options:
epinephrine
thyroxine
lactic acid
a and b
a and c

epinephrine

What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Question options:
Fats
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Chromium and iron

carbohydrates

Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity?
Question options:
Fat that is stored closest to the exercising muscle is oxidized first
Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
Fat oxidization makes more of a contribution as the intensity of the exercise increases
Fat is burned in higher quantities during short, high-intensity exercises than prolonged, low-intensity exercises

Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity

Sports drinks offer some advantages over water for athletes who:
Question options:
need to replenish electrolytes.
are older.
exercise outside in cold weather.
a and b
b and c

need to replenish electrolytes

Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise?
Question options:
ATP
Lactate
Glycogen
Phosphocreatine

lactate

An endurance athlete can lose _____ of fluid an hour.
Question options:
4 cups
3 pints
1.5 quarts
2.5 gallons

1.5 quarts

Moderate use of caffeine by athletes:
Question options:
may assist performance.
slows down reactions.
depletes glycogen stores.
has no adverse effects.

may assist performance

In the early minutes of an activity, _____ provides the majority of energy the muscles use to go into action.
Question options:
fat
liver glycogen
muscle glycogen
protein

muscle glycogen

Which of the following is a feature of water metabolism during exercise?
Question options:
The maximum loss of fluid per hour of exercise is about 0.5 liters
In cold weather, the need for water falls dramatically because the body does not sweat
Sweat losses can exceed the capacity of the GI tract to absorb water, resulting in some degree of dehydration
Heavy sweating leads to a marked rise in the thirst sensation to stimulate water intake, which delays the onset of dehydration

Sweat losses can exceed the capacity of the GI tract to absorb water, resulting in some degree of dehydration

What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?
Question options:
Iron
Calcium
Thiamin
Vitamin C

Iron

Examples of aerobic physical activity include all of the following except:
Question options:
brisk walking.
using weight machines.
swimming.
bicycling.

using weight machines

The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:
Question options:
satiety.
appetite.
hunger.
obesity.

appetite

which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
Question options:
Fever
Fasting
Sleeping
Malnutrition

fever

What is the most satiating macronutrient?
Question options:
Fat
Water
Protein
Carbohydrate

protein

The day after Thanksgiving, you and your sisters are a little hungry and want to eat leftovers before going shopping. Which of the following foods would most readily satisfy the feeling of hunger?
Question options:
Turkey
Pecan pie
Mashed potatoes
Noodle casserole

turkey

If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
Question options:
more body fat.
stronger bones.
stronger muscles.
more muscle mass.

more muscle mass

Which of the following are all used to compute a woman's BMR?
Question options:
Body fat, height, and age
Body weight, height, and age
Physical activity level, body weight, and height
Energy intake, physical activity level, and body weight

Body weight, height, and age

The feeling between meals that keeps one from eating again (not yet ready to eat) is called?

Question options:

Satiety


Satiation


Appetite


Hunger

satiety

Which of the following is a feature of leptin?
Question options:
It is an enzyme
It is a satiety signal
It is usually deficient in obese people
It is secreted by the brain and acts on fat cells

It is a satiety signal

What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight?
Question options:
Males are usually taller than females
Females have lower levels of thyroid hormones
Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
Females have a lower percentage of adipose tissue

Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass

What is the primary action of orlistat, a weight-loss drug?
Question options:
It reduces taste sensation
It inhibits lipoprotein lipase
It inhibits pancreatic lipase
It alters circulating leptin concentrations

inhibits pancreatic lipase

In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
Question options:
Neck
Abdomen
Hips and thighs
Arms and shoulders

abdomen

What fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?
Question options:
About 1/10
Up to 1/2
About 2/3
Over 9/10

about 2/3

What is the best approach to weight loss?
Question options:
Avoid foods containing carbohydrates
Eliminate all fats from the diet and decrease water intake
Greatly increase protein intake to prevent body protein loss
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

Bariatrics is a field of medicine that specializes in the treatment of
Question options:
obesity.
combating fad diets.
severe underweight.
anorexia and bulimia.

obesity

Which of the following types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods?
Question options:
high in fiber
high in protein
high in sugar
a and b
b and c

a and b

The drug sibutramine reduces appetite by affecting
Question options:
ketone production.
insulin to glucagon ratio.
leptin sensitivity of fat cells.
serotonin utilization in the brain.

serotonin utilization in the brain.

Which technique to determine body composition is the most accurate?
Question options:
Underwater weighing

BMI

Bioelectrical impedience

kin fold measures

Underwater weighing

Which of the following defines the body's set point?
Question options:
Minimum weight of a person
Maximum weight of a person
Point at which a person's weight plateaus before dropping again quickly
Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?
Question options:
Most are aware of their condition and seek treatment
Fewer than 200 women die each year from the disease
Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns
During initial treatment, metabolism slows and appetite increases but thereafter subsides

Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns

In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following exceptQuestion options:
diet.
behavior.
physical activity.
adipocyte number.

adipocyte number

A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)Question options:
fad diet.
discretionary diet.
spot reduction program.
aggressive bariatric program.

fad diet

What is the principal reason that the FDA has banned the sale of products containing ephedrine?Question options:
The costs are prohibitive
The products were found to be ineffective for weight loss
The products were implicated in several cases of heart attacks and seizures
The products were found to contain contaminants that were believed to be responsible for inducing liver failure

The products were implicated in several cases of heart attacks and seizures

The process of protein turnover involves
:Question options:
the conversion of protein to glucose for energy in half of the protein we eat.
the loss of amino acids by excretion through the kidneys when cells die.
the use of amino acids that have been conserved from breakdown of old cells.
the annual replacement of old cells with new protein that has entered the body in food.

the use of amino acids that have been conserved from breakdown of old cells.

Which of the following is related to the quality of a food protein?Question options:
Essential amino acid balance
Nonessential amino acid balance
Total amino acids per gram of food
Quantity of nonessential amino acids that can be converted

Essential amino acid balance

Your mother is considering changing her diet to include only non-meat proteins to reduce her risk of developing heart disease or cancer. What evidence is available to support her decision?Question options:
vegetarian diets contain greater amounts of heart-protective omega-3 fatty acids
plant-based diets are usually lower in saturated fat and higher in fiber, which reduces risk of heart disease
substituting soy for meat proteins has resulted in a large decrease in heart disease risk
colon cancer appears less frequently in people eating plant-based diets

plant-based diets are usually lower in saturated fat and higher in fiber, which reduces risk of heart disease

The body's amino acid pool consists ofQuestion options:
essential amino acids only.
endogenous amino acids only.
nonessential amino acids only.
both essential and nonessential amino acids.

both essential and nonessential amino acids.

Which of the following are common early symptoms of hypothermia in athletes?Question options:
Headache and nausea
Confusion and delirium
Dizziness and clumsiness

Euphoria and shivering

When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?Question options:
Water
Protein
Glucose
Fatty acids

Glucose

What nutrient becomes depleted most rapidly during physical exercise?Question options:
Iron
Water
Glucose
Glycogen

Water

Which of the following is a common product of anaerobic metabolism?Question options:
Lactate
Phytate
Phosphoric acid
Hydrochloric acid

Lactate

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set