World Religions Final Exam Study Guide

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Shinto often makes use of

purification rituals

the sun goddess of Shinto is

Amaterasu

The color most often associated with Shinto is

white

The name for a god in Shinto is

kami

An important element of ritual at a Shinto shrine is

hand clapping

The term Shinto comes from two Chinese words that mean

the way of the gods

The country that before modern times had the most influence on Japan was

China

The primary focus of Shinto worship is directed toward

the gods of nature

Among Shinto values and practices, which task is quite important

purification

Shinto puts great emphasis on

careful ritual

Kamikaze is a term used for referring to

suicide pilots

The ideal of the warrior, promoted by Shinto during WWII, is called

bushido

The emperor renounced his title to divinity when

WWII ended

Omoto is a new religion that emphasizes the value of

art

Omoto, in order to encourage international understanding, gives a special place to the study and use of

Esperanto

Shinto and Buddhism

began to blend soon after the introduction of Buddhism in Japan.

The Japanese people

seem to be a blend of several peoples.

Shinto and Confucianism particularly had what feature in common?

veneration of ancestors

Shinto

has helped the Japanese maintain a sense of their unique identity.

The basis for the Japanese writing system came from

China

The Church of World Messianity (Sekaikyusei-kyo) is an offshoot of

Omoto

A special New Year's ritual in Shinto is

rice pounding

Judaism traces itself back to what legendary patriarch who is written about in the book of Genesis?

Abraham

The biblical book that describes the origins of the human race is

Genesis

Zionism is

a movement that urges Jews to live in Israel

The Hebrew Bible sees history as

signs of divine activity

The moral conscience of the Hebrew people was the

prophets

According to the Book of Exodus, what disaster was the last to strike the Egyptians?

death of firstborn male children

The Jewish view of God is best expressed as

God makes moral demands

The Torah is

the first five books of the Bible (Pentateuch)

The destruction of the Second Temple changed the nature of the Hebrew religion, in that afterward,

the Jewish religion began to focus on the written word

The Talmud is

a long work of commentary based on biblical principles

The Jewish Day of Atonement, the most sacred day of the Jewish year, is

Yom Kippur

When the Jewish boy turns thirteen, he is considered an adult in the religious community. This ceremony takes its name from his new status

Bar Mitzvah

Which Jewish festival recalls the event related in the Book of Exodus about liberation of the Hebrews from oppression in Egypt?

Passover (Pesach)

The Reform movement that began to spread in the nineteenth century attempted to

modernize Judaism

The tree categories of the Hebrew Bible are

Torah, Prophets, and Writings

The Sadducees were

an aristocratic, priestly party centered in Jerusalem

The Jewish Sabbath is kept from

sunset Friday to sunset Saturday

The biblical book of song lyrics sung in worship at the Second Temple in Jerusalem is

Psalms

The Bible says that God spoke to Moses

on Mount Sinai

The southern kingdom was destroyed in 586 BCE by

Babylonia

The Yiddish language, though written in Hebrew characters, is a type of

German

The first two kings of the Israelite Kingdom were

Saul and David

Another name for the Torah is

Pentateuch

Adam is said to have lived to be how old?

930

"Canaan" refers to

an early name for the region of Israel

"Covenant" means

contract

The Gospel that is oriented toward a Jewish audience and that portrays Jesus as the "new Moses" is

Matthew

"I am the Light of the world" is a statement found in what non-Synoptic Gospel?

John

Jesus said that all important religious laws could be summed up in the

Two Great Commandments

In Jesus's time, what power controlled Israel?

Rome

The Jewish monastic community that may have strongly influenced John the Baptist and Jesus was the

Essenes

When the early Christian belief spread outside Israel, it was spread particularly by what missionary?

Paul

In 1054, what happened between the Eastern (Greek-speaking) Church and the Western (Latin-speaking) Church?

they split apart

The Christian bishop of North Africa who wrote his Confessions and influenced much later Christianity was

Augustine

Perhaps the most important ritual of Christianity is a sign of entry into the church, or

baptism

A letter to an early Christian cmmunity is called

an epistle

The major Christian rituals, such as baptism and the Lord's Supper, are often called

sacraments

Christianity added its books to those of the Hebrew Bible; the distinctively Christian books are called

the New Testament

The Protestant Reformation was started by

Martin Luther

the branch of Christianity that is significant in Russia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania is called

Eastern Orthodox

The central sacrament (ritual act) of the Roman Catholic Church is called

the Mass

In 313 the emperor Constantine published an Edict of Toleration, which allowed

Christians to worship publicly

Lent is

a period of preparation for Easter

The abbreviation A.D. refers to

anno Domini (in the year of the Lord)

The view that the end of the world is near is called

apocalypticism

Christianity grew out of

Judaism

Jesus died at the time of what religious festival?

Passover

The primary language that Jesus spoke was

Aramaic

The oldest of the Gospels is generally thought to be

Mark

"Orthodoxy" literally means

"right belief"

The beginning of the Muslim calender is the Western year

622 CE

Islam particularly stresses

oneness of God

Muhammad was born and raised in

Mecca

Islam literally means

submission

Observant Muslims do not allow

alcohol

The phrase "Five Pillars of Islam" refers to

essentials of Muslim belief and practice

Islam and Judaism are similar in that they both

make use of circumcision

Muslims trace themselves back ultimately to what great patriarch?

Abraham

The Islamic month of fasting is called

Ramadan

The year 1 of the Muslim calender dates from what event in the life of Muhammad?

escape from Mecca to Medina

The sacred book of Islam, which gives the sermons of Muhammad, is called the

Qur'an

The branch of Islam that is found primarily in Iran and Iraq is

Shiite

The Shiite branch developed because

of a disagreement over the line of succession from Muhammad

Muhammad's job was

caravan driver

Regarding the afterlife, Muslims believe

in heaven and hell

All Muslims, unless prevented by poverty or sickness, are expected to visit Mecca at least once in their lifetime in the religious journey (pilgrimage) known as

Hajj

Ramadan is the

name of the month in which Muhammad received revelation

The month-long fast that observant Muslims keep involves

no eating or drinking of anything during the daylight hours

The minaret is

a tower used to call Muslims to prayer

Muhammad had his first revelations

in a cave

At the Kabah, what object is venerated?

a meteorite

Literally, the word "Muslim" means a person who

submits

The chanter who calls people to prayer is called

muezzin

The Sunni reform movement that began in Saudi Arabia is

Wahhabi

The Sunni reform movement that for a while took control of Afghanistan is called

Taliban

The countries that have a Shiite majority are

Iran and Iraq

One sign of a religious cult is that the movement

strictly regulates contact between its members and nonmembers

The word "pagan" comes from "pagus," a Latin word that means

countryside

The eight significant annual festivals of Wicca are called

Sabbats

A coven is

a local group of Wiccan practitioners

A form of contemporary paganism that is popular in England is

Druidism

The Yoruba religion

exists in West Africa

The gods of the Yoruba-derived religions are often called

orishas

Sometimes, when Santeria practitioners are in trance

they magically become a god, with some of the god's characteristics

Literally, Theosophy means

divine wisdom

Theosophy shows many similarities to

Hindu Vedanta

One of the founders of Theosophy was

Helena Blavatsky

The Church Universal and Triumphant combines elements of Theosophy and

Christianity

The founder of Scientology was

L. Ron Hubbard

In Scientology, the state of full mental liberation is called

clear

Literally, Falun Gong means

law-wheel energy

What is the name of the founder of Falun Gong?

Li Hongzhi

In a vision, the founder of Cao Dai saw what?

a large eye appearing in the air

Cao Dai includes many beliefs that come from

Buddhism

The majority of the followers of Cao Dai live in

Vietname

The name Rastafarianism

comes from the name of a government leader

The founder of Rastafarianism was

Marcus Garvey

Rastafarianism makes frequent us of what book?

Christian Bible

A well-known representative of Rastafarianism was

Bob Marley

Reggae is

the type of music associated with Rastafarianism

Baha'i emerged from

Islam

The word Bab is the title given to the forerunner of the founder of Baha'i. The title means

gate

The founder of Baha'i was

Baha'u'llah

The religion of Baha'i is universalistic and even works for the establishment of

a single world government

The Baha'i faith is

monotheistic

In Wicca, the name of the winter solstice festival is

Yule

The early Druids were written about by the

Romans

The Druids apparently worshipped

at least 30 gods of nature.

Literally, "Druid" is thought to mean

"oak-tree wisdom"

The English site used by modern Druids for their summer solstice rituals is this

Stonehenge

In Santeria, the goddess of love and fertility is

Oshun

The founder of Anthroposophy was

Rudolf Steiner

The author of Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine was

Helena Blavatsky

Cao Dai speaks of how many "alliances"?

three

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