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political geography

the study of the political organization of the planet.

landlocked

surrounded by land on all sides

political culture

a way of thinking about how politics and government ought to be carried out

theocracy

a government run by religious officials

human territoriality

effectors of human societies to influence events and achieve social goals

state

a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority

nation

tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes

nation-state

A country who's population share a common identity.

sovereignty

government free from external control

territorial morphology

study of states' shapes and their effects

microstates

states with very small land areas

compact state

a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly

fragmented state

a state consisting of one or more pieces

elongated state

a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape

prorupt state

a small area that sticks out from a country

perforated state

territory completely surrounds another state

exclaves

part of a state separated form the rest of the state

enclaves

small countries within larger countries

boundary

a line or natural feature that separates one area, state, or country from another

capital city

a place where laws and plans for a state are made

centrifugal forces

forces that divide

centripetal forces

forces that unify

colonialism

a system by which a country maintains colonies outside its borders

core area

The largest population cluster, the most productive region, the area with greatest centrality and accessibility, probably containing the capital city as well.

federal state

An internal organization of a state that allocated most powers to units of local government.

geopolitics

the study of the relationship between geography and politics

gerrymander

an oddly shaped district designed to increase the voting strength of a particular group

heartland theory

a geopolitical hypothesis proposed by British geographer Harold Mackinder that states that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain strength to eventually dominate the world.

multicore state

A territory that possesses more than one core area

organic theory

The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life.

primate city

a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy

rimland

The term coined by Nicholas Spykman referring to the coastal rim of Eurasia

tribalism

a situation in which people feel greater allegiance and loyalty to their own ethnic group than to a state as a whole

unitary state

An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

Benelux

A customs union comprising BElgium and NEtherlands and LUXembourg

Common Market

a group of countries that act as a single market, without trade barriers

cultural organization

An organization based on culture., An organization based on culture.

European Community

group of nations established in 1957 to expand free trade in Europe; also called Common Market

European Union

an organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries

Euroregions

Transboundary cooperartion zones in Europe that conform to the rules of the Euregion Council.

EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)

sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources.

international sanctions

Actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.

law of the sea

law establishing states' rights and responcibilitirs concerning the ownership of the earth's natural seas and oceans and their rescources

median-line principle

the system of drawing a political boundary midway between two states' coastlines when the territorial seas or EEZ are narrower than twice the standard or adopted limit

military alliance

a mutual treaty of assistance that commits each nation to support one another if they should be attacked

multinational union

States that have joined together to further their shared political ideologies

political union

incoporates foreign and defense policy, like a federal political system

supranationalism

the alliance of three or more states

territorial sea

belt of water outside and parallel to the coastline

Truman Proclamation

the United States jurisdiction over the continental shelf

democracy

government ruled by the people

devolution

transferring power to local authorities

ethnic group

a group of people who share a common culture and ancestry

ethnonationalism

ethnic groups seek independence in a territory of their own

gateway state

A state that absorbs cultures and conditions without being dominated by them

globalization

growth to a global or worldwide scale

New World Order

period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power

religious fundamentalism

movement to return to the foundations of the faith

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