American Democracy Texas Version 10th Edition Chapter 9

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Economist Mancur Olson concluded that groups

exercise too much power in the American system.

The theory that society's interests are most effectively represented through group action is

pluralist theory.

A basic reason for the existence of so many interest groups in the United States is

All these answers are correct.

According to James Madison, the source of most factions is the

unequal distribution of property.

The most fully organized interests are those that have which of the following as their primary purpose?

economic activity

The Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)

allows corporations and labor unions to spend unlimited funds on campaigns.

A purposive incentive is defined as

the opportunity to contribute to a worthy goal or purpose.

Citizens' interest groups are distinguished from economic interest groups by the fact that

their members receive no direct economic benefit from attainment of the group's goals.

An interest group that focuses on policy benefits for senior citizens would be an example of

a single-issue group.

Why did Representative Tom DeLay lose his post as House majority leader?

He was implicated in a scandal involving campaign donations from lobbyist Jack Abramoff.

Why have issue networks become more prevalent than iron triangles?

the increasing complexity of policy problems

Some groups pursue collective goods. A collective good is one that

cannot be selectively granted or denied to individuals; it must be shared.

The situation in which individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called

the size factor.

In order to overcome the free-rider problem, non-economic groups have

used Internet resources and computer-assisted mailing lists to target potential donors.

Roughly how many American workers currently belong to unions?

one in eight

Economic groups have an advantage over non-economic groups because

they have greater access to financial resources.

"Agency capture" occurs when

regulatory agencies side with the industries they are supposed to regulate rather than with the public.

A flaw in pluralism theory is the fact that

the interest group system is unrepresentative because some interests are far better organized and more powerful than others.

Which citizens' group did a Fortune magazine survey rank as the nation's most powerful lobbying group?

the AARP

An amicus brief

is a written document in which a group explains to a court its position on a legal dispute the court is handling

In acknowledging the dilemma inherent in group activity, James Madison

worried that government would be overly dominated by groups, but recognized that a free society is obliged to permit the advocacy of self-interest.

Effective inside lobbying is based upon

providing useful and persuasive information to key officials.

PACs tend to contribute the most money to

incumbents.

A main difference between iron triangles and issue networks is that

issue networks are generally less stable than iron triangles, in that the members of an issue network may change as the issue develops.

Political scientist Theodore Lowi has questioned pluralist theory by suggesting that

there is no concept of the public interest in a system that gives special interests the ability to determine the policies affecting them.

n recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly

targeted the executive branch in their efforts to influence policy decisions.

The influence of interest groups through the courts occurs through

both initiating lawsuits and lobbying for certain judges to be appointed to the bench.

The term iron triangle refers to

a small and informal but relatively stable set of bureaucrats, legislators, and lobbyists who are concerned with promoting a particular interest.

An informal grouping of officials, lobbyists, and policy specialists who come together temporarily around a policy problem is

an issue network.

Outside lobbying does NOT include

developing and maintaining close contacts with policymakers.

Grassroots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to

pressure from constituents.

Which of the following is roughly the amount that was spent on lobbying in the United States in 2009?

$3.5 billion

There are more than ________ political action committees (PACs) in the United States.

4,000

The support of ________ was critical to passage of a controversial prescription drug program for the elderly in 2003.

the AARP

The largest number of PACs are those associated with

business.

Which of the following statements would NOT be accepted by supporters of the pluralist view of interest groups?

The opinion of the majority should always prevail in a policy dispute over the opinion of a more intense and directly affected minority.

A pluralist could be expected to argue that

society is best seen as a collection of separate interests.

Theodore Lowi's theory of interest-group liberalism

deals with the tendency of officials to support the policy demands of the interest group or groups that have a special stake in a policy.

James Madison's solution to the problem of factions (special interests) has, in the modern policy process, actually contributed to the problem by

resulting in a fragmentation of authority among policymakers, thereby providing groups more opportunities to get their way.

Which of the following is true of employment in lobbying firms by members of Congress?

They are prohibited by law from lobbying Congress for a set period of time after leaving office.

James Madison argued

for regulation of interests through a governing system of checks and balances.

Economist Mancur Olson refers to what aspect of interest groups as "the size factor"?

Small groups are ordinarily more united on policy issues and often have more resources, enabling them to win out more often than large groups.

In the dynamics of an iron triangle, what benefit do interest groups provide to friendly bureaucratic agencies?

lobbying support for agency programs

The limits of interest groups' influence might be gauged by the Democratic backlash against the ________, which tried to block NAFTA in 1993.

AFL-CIO

Members of the ________ generate more mail to Congress than any other group.

AARP

Another name for an interest group is

pressure group.

During his visit to this country in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville described the United States as "a nation of ________."

joiners

he citizens of ________ are most actively involved in interest groups and community causes.

the United States

Which of the following is NOT a typical interest group function?

addressing a broad and diverse range of public issues

Which of the following organizations is NOT an example of a single-issue group?

MoveOn.org

The air we breathe is an example of a

collective good.

________ wrote that "Liberty is to faction what air is to fire."

James Madison

Under federal law, PACs can contribute no more than ________ per candidate in a primary election.

$5,000

Most lobbyists receive support from elected officials in direct exchange for

information.

The dominant labor interest group is

the AFL-CIO.

About ________ percent of people who regularly listen to National Public Radio do not donate money to their local station.

90

According to E. E. Schattschneider, the interest-group system has a

strong upper-class bias.

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