Sociology

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American Dream

To be stable, to have a family, and to be loved.

P= poor

13.2% are considered poor in the US population. Women(feminization of poverty) households run by women. And children are the fastest growing category in the US. The two poorest in the US. 49% of people under the age of 24 are considered poor.

O= Oppression

Two groups facing this issue. Welfare mothers, white women and usually has 2 kids and have been on welfare for less than 2 years. Second group is underclass. Trapped in long term poverty. May feel alienated from society and may then engage in illegal behavior

V= victim.

Two arguments on this topic. 1. People tend to blame the individual. 2. Blame society.

E= employment

People that are poor DO want to work

R= relative poverty

Lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more.

Social stratification

ranking categories of people in a hierarchy

Types of social stratification

- 1. Trait of society: neither the rich nor the poor created this system, but it still continues to shape our lives. Children with wealthier parents are going to be more healthier.
- 2. Universal and variable: found everywhere. What is considered unequal will vary from society to society.
- 3. Beliefs: matter of beliefs about why people should be unequal.

- Cast system:

divide people into occupations, fixed and permanent, and its based on ascription. Really no way to get out. Usually will have three things.

Cast system types

- 1. Required to marry someone of the same social category as they are.
- 2. To socialize with the same social category.
- 3. Raised to do a certain job.

Class system:

how talented and hard working a indivuisal is.

Gender:

personal traits and social positions that numbers attach to being male and female; happens throughout a lifespan and shapes out feelings, thoughts, and actions.

Sex

is biological when it comes to females and males. Most of the differences between men and women are socially created. At one point, we cannot play sports, we were too delicate. Men and women differ in physical ways. Young men show greater mathematical ability than women and women show greater verbal ability than men. No difference when it comes to intelligence between the sexes.

Macheorchy:

women dominant

Patriarchy:

male dominant.

Gender Roles

the attitudes and activities' that a society links to people of each sex.

Gender Socizialation

the process of which males and females are taught appropriate behaviors, attitudes, and traits for their biological sex. Begins at birth and happens throughout the life span.

The beauty myth (niami wolf

terms of physical appearance.
Glass ceiling: invisible yet real barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle management or wherever they want to go.
- It is the kind of work that men and women do that explains the factor in the earning between the two
- In the U.S about 50% of bachelor's degrees are earned by women.
- There is a big controversy of women being in the military. Women are seen as nurtures not people to kill.

- Rape: 90% of rapes, the women will know her attacker.
- Female genital mutilation often occurs in Africa. Take a young girl and remove her clitoris.
- Families in developing worlds feed girls last.
- About 66% of newly infected youth with HIV are girls. And usually infected by much older men. In foreign countries.
- Child bride: 70,000 teenage girls who are married off every day.

Global stratification

patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole

The wealthiest 20 of the global population receives about 77 of all global income while the poorest 20 receives about 2.

Richest 20 consume 45 of meat/fish, 58 energy 84 paper, 87 motor vehicles

If china and India were to have car ownership rates that equal that of Japan, there would be 1.3 billion more cars on the planet. In 2009, China overtook the US as the world's largest auto market

...

The US, Germany and Japan contain about 10 of the world's population but generate half of the world's income: US has most productive economy

...

There are 196 nations in the world, most recent July 2011- South Sudan

...

IF THE WORLD WERE A VILLAGE
In the world's lowest income nations, half of all children born die by age 10. Over 1 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic hunger leaving them less able to work and at a higher risk of diseases. In wealthy nations such as US, people consume about 3500 calories a day which leads to obesity. Lower income consumes around 2500 calories and do more physical labor
Absolute poverty- life threatening. Africa highest. Of the approximately 1 billion people who are living in absolute poverty , 70 are women very small in the US. In low income countries, 1/3 to ½ of people are affected

...

Slavery

According to Anti Slavery International, about 200 million men, women and children live in conditions that amount to slavery.

Types of Slavery

Chattel- ( CHAT tell) one person owns another. About 27 million people are in this category. The buying and selling of slaves still takes place in Asia and especially Africa.
2) Child Slavery. Very poor families let their children go out on streets and do what they can do to survive. The international Labour Organization estimates more than 200 million children are at work and at least 8 million of those children are forced in hazardous forms of labor.

3) Debt bondage- employers holding workers by paying them too little to cover their debts. Ex sweatshops
4) Servile ( sir vile) forms of marriage- IN India, Thailand and some African nations, families marry off women against their will. Many are slaves to their husband's family and some are forced into prostitution

5) Human trafficking- movement of men, women and children from one place to another for purpose of performing forced labor. Women, men brought to a country with promise of new job and then find selves captive. Also, people adopt children from another country and that child forced to work. Next to trading and guns and drugs, trading In people brings the greatest profit to organized crime around the world

Two theories that explains unequal distribution of world's wealth:

1) Modernization- (structural/functional) explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences among nations rich societies produce wealth
a) The development of industrial technology has raised standard of living of even poor people in high income societies. Ex. Refrigerator, meds, tv, etc
b) Theory identifies tradition as the greatest barrier to economic development. EX Amish oppose new technology because they see it as a threat to their family relationships, customs and religious beliefs
c) Theory claims that high income countries play four important roles in global economic development: help control population, increase food production, introduce industrial technology, provide foreign Aid
d) Criticism- blames victims for their own economic problems

Part two of world wealth

2) Dependency-(conflict) explains global inequality in terms of historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones in equal distribution of wealth rich countries overdevelop themselves as they underdeveloped the rest of the world
a) Economic success of many wealthier countries was achieved at expense of power/control
b) Concepts of colonialism and neocolonialism
Colonialism- process where rich countries enrich selves thru political and economic control of others
Neo- process where multinational corporations dominate economy of a poor country essence of the capitalist world economy
c) Poor countries have become dep. On rich nations because they sell raw materials to those rich nations, so, theory is that rich nations are to blame for global poverty
d) Criticism- predicts that the countries with the strongest ties to rich nations should be the poorest, this is not the case
IN class questions: Mcdonald's has more than 30, 000 restaurants in 119 countries KFC has 11.000 in 80 countries. Does the expansion constitute desirable development

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