Science Terms for Test

36 terms by gmicucci

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mitosis

a process of cell reproduction that produces two identical daughter cells from the parent cell and is used four growth

meiosis

used for sexual reproduction, this process produces four sex cells

cell

a small microscopic part of the body that contains a nucleus and makes up the body

DNA

contains genetic material, found in the chromosomes and carries traits from life forms

Chromosome

part of the cell, carries DNA and genetic material

gene

usually occurs in pairs, a specific place on a chromosome

trait

a characteristic of a human ex. eye color, nose shape...

pedigree chart

tells known phenotypes for a family and past generations

punnett square

used to determine the chances of dominant vs. recessive genes

dominant

a trait, that is stronger than the other; like tall appears more frequently than short

recessive

the trait that doesn't appear as often in a genotype

homozygous

having two of the same genotype (TT or tt) either both dominant or both recessive

heterozygous

having one dominant and one recessive trait in the genotype (Tt)

genotype

the sign for dominant or recessive traits (TT), (Tt)

phenotype

the result of a genotype like (TT) then that person would be tall as a trait

adenine

a base on DNA, always pairs with thymine

thymine

a base on DNA always pairs with adenine

cytosine

a base on DNA, always pairs with cuanine

cuanine

a base on DNA, always pairs with cytosine

base pairs

adenine, thymine, cytosine, cuanine

homozygote

having both dominant or both recessive genes for traits

heterozytote

organisms that have one dominant and one recessive gene

down syndrome

three chromosomes are lined up when there should only be two, creating this syndrome

alelle

different forms of a gene

hemophilia

a genetic disorder which causes the blood to clot

sex chromosome

one of the 23 chromosome pairs, females are expressed with (XX) and males are expressed with (XY)

sex-linked

diseases that are only carried on the X or Y chromosome, making it linked with male or female

incomplete dominance

in sickle-cell anemia, AA' not exactily recessive or dominant

sickle-cell anemia

a genetic disease which causes blood cells to be shaped like a sickle

inherited trait

something that is passed from parent to offspring during sexual reproduction

environmental trait

a trait that is not inherited by a parent, like an accent based on the place you live, or if you dye your hair

natural selection

when organisms best adapt to the environment

mutation

when the gene/DNA does not meet up with another pair and then it is damaged in a way to alter the genetic message that was carried by the gene

genetics

determine traits

genetic counsleor

parents can talk to them and see what the risk is of their offspring getting a certian genetically inherited disease

heredity

the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring (genes)

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