Sociology Ch 8

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In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?

The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased.

Of the six social classes in America, the lower middle class has the highest percentage of members. true or false

true

People in the capitalist class are more likely to experience mental health problems because of the excessive stress associated with managing high-powered jobs. True or False

false

There is a direct relationship between the amount of education an occupation requires and the prestige it holds in society. True or False

true

__________ are the MOST likely segment of the population in the U.S. to experience poverty today.

Children

In exchange mobility, about the same number of people move up and down the social-class ladder, which results in the overall social-class system showing little change. True or False

true

Poverty is relatively equally distributed in America by state, and between rural and urban settings. True or False

false

What is Durkheim's term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?

Anomie

What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?

the power elite

When individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?

they will claim the higher status

Jeanann and her two children recently went on welfare. Research indicated that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty ________.

for a year or less

John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty, and must go on welfare. What is the MOST likely cause of John's poverty?

Changes in the social structure are the most likely cause.

Jim and Jan are working-class Americans making a combined income of $47,000. Today they won a $125 million lottery. How will this immediately impact their lives?

They will experience anomie.

Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown poorer. True or False?

true

Wealth and income are interchangeable, each meaning the same in reference to social class. True or False?

false

When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to _________.

the value of a person's property minus that person't debt, a person's net worth

Which statement regarding the nation's income is MOST accurate?

The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.

Social class

a large group of people who rank closely to one another in wealth, power, and prestige.

Wealth

consists of property and income

Power

the ability to carry out your will despite resistance.

The power elite

those who make the big decisions in U.S. society

Status

our social ranking

Status consistency

a person has a similar rank in all three dimensions of social class: wealth, power, and prestige

Status inconsistency

when a person has a mixture of high and low ranks in the three dimensions of social class
-individuals with this are likely to confront one frustrating situation after another

The Capitalist Class is on the ________ rung of the social class ladder. Only ____ percent of Americans are in this class.

top, 1%

The Upper middle class is the class most shaped by ______________. About ____ percent of the populations belongs to this class.

education, 15%

The Lower middle class has the _________ members.

MOST

The Working class

-relatively unskilled blue-collar and white-collar workers
-their jobs are less secure, more routine, and closely watched

The Working Poor

members work at unskilled, low paying, temporary jobs
-many are functionally illiterate
-many of them work full time and remain poor

The Underclass

belong on the lowest rung of the ladder and have no chance of climbing.
-they have little or no connection with the job market
-gov't aid is their main support

In family life, the ____________ place emphasis on family tradition.

capitalists

Divorce is most common among the _______ social classes.

lower

Education ____________ as one moves up the social class ladder.

increases

In religion, certain classes tend to cluster in different denominations. True or false.

true

In politics, the ________ tend to vote Republican while the _________ tend to vote Democratic.

rich, poor

Social class affects our __________ ________ as well.

physical health

The _________ the income, the more apt people are to be sick and higher mortality rates at younger ages.

lower

Mental health of the __________ classes is worse than the __________ classes.

lower, upper

There are three types of social mobility:

1. Intergenerational mobility
2. Structural mobility
3. Exchange mobility

The poverty line

the official measure of poverty

Poor people spend about _______ of their income on food.

1/3

There is a clustering of poverty in the ________.

South

The feminization of poverty

Women are more apt to be poor than men

Culture of poverty

the values and behaviors of the poor that make them different from other people

Most poverty is short, lasting _____ _______ ____ _____.

one year or less

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