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Possible Test Questions

The Port Huron Statement expressed the views of the

Students for a Democratic Society.

The Free Speech Movement was sparked by restrictions on students' rights to

distribute literature and recruit volunteers for political causes.

Many of the new religious groups of the 1960s centered around

authoritarian leaders.

A rock festival that drew hundreds of thousands of people in 1969 was at

Woodstock

After 1920 the women's movement split into two camps with opposing views on

laws protecting women.

For her book The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan interviewed Smith College graduates and found that most of the women

reported having everything they could want, but still felt unfulfilled.

In University of California Regents v. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled that

schools could use race but not quotas for determining admissions.

To push for better wages and benefits for farmworkers, César Chávez organized a successful

grape boycott.

Some opponents of bilingualism argued that

total immersion in English was the soundest road to educational success.

The incident at Three Mile Island left many people in great doubt about the

safety of nuclear energy.

The youth movement included

the Port Huron statement.

Who was Rachel Carson?

The environmentalist who wrote Silent Spring.

The part of the Educational Amendments that prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against girls and young women in nearly all aspects of their operations was

Title IX.

In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that

states could not regulate abortion in the first three months of pregnancy.

Affirmative action called for companies and institutions to

actively recruit African American employees.

In Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that

busing was constitutional.

La Raza Unida was a Mexican American that

political party.

The Indian Civil Rights Act did what?

recognized the legitimacy of local reservation law.

At Love Canal, residents experienced health problems because

an old toxic waste dump under the community was leaking into the ground.

The book Unsafe at Any Speed led to

safety standards for car designs.

The creation of Earth Day was significant because it

brought many generations together toward a common goal, united many different socio-economic groups in United States, was a positive movement in an era of negativity.

What was a major goal of all minority groups?

the attainment of economic stability.

What two events motivated the Students for a Democratic Society to action?

African American discrimination and the threat of nuclear warfare.

What factor do you think led to the increase in higher education?

The economic boom of the 1950s enabled families to afford college tuitions.

What can you infer about the rise of the youth movement?

The youth movement started because there were more young people, and they were better educated.

When did the Equal Rights Amendment become part of the Constitution?

Never, because it did not get ratified.

Which legislation of the 1970s guaranteed that state universities had to offer an equal number of scholarships to female athletes as to male athletes?

Title IX.

Describe some typical actions of the American Indian Movement (AIM).

Fight discrimination by police officers & prevent use of excessive force by police officers.

What is affirmative action?

An employer had to try to hire an African American for an open position, it is considered to be reverse discrimination.

Why did the Hispanic population in the United States grow?

More jobs and better living conditions.

In the passage of Silent Spring, why are the birds gone?

They are dead, because they ingested the pesticides used to kill insects.

Many of the religious groups embraced by members of the counterculture centered around

authoritarian leaders.

The early 1960s saw a phenomenon that fueled the youth movement—the rapid increase in

college enrollments.

The 1960s gave birth to a conspicuous youth movement, which challenged the American political and social system and conventional

middle-class values.

What movement was sparked in Berkeley, California, when the university decided to restrict the students' rights to distribute literature and to recruit volunteers for political causes on campus?

Free Speech Movement.

Where did SDS leaders orchestrate an eight-day occupation of several buildings to protest the administration's plan to build a new gym in an area that served as a neighborhood park?

Columbia University in New York City.

One of the forces that helped bring the women's movement to life was

the President's Commission on the Status of Women.

What outlawed job discrimination by private employers not only on the basis of race, color, religion, and national origin, but also of gender?

Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

The big change in abortion laws came with the 1973 Supreme Court decision in

Roe v. Wade.

A new organization, the idea of Betty Friedan, reflected the diverse goals of the modern feminist movement and was named the

National Organization for Women.

Although about 47 percent of American women were in the workforce in the 1960s, generally they were shut out of

higher paying and prestigious professions.

In 1966 César Chávez and Dolores Huerta merged their organizations that fought for the rights of farmworkers to form the

United Farm Workers.

The Indian Civil Rights Act recognized the legitimacy of local reservation law and guaranteed reservation residents the protections of

the Bill of Rights.

Who founded the political party La Raza Unida, which called for job-training programs and greater access to financial institutions?

José Angel Gutiérrez.

Leaders of the civil rights movement began to focus their energies on gaining good jobs for African Americans and

adequate education.

Who founded People United to Save Humanity, or PUSH, a group aimed at registering voters, developing African American businesses, and broadening educational opportunities?

Jesse Jackson.

Supporters of nuclear energy hailed it as a cleaner and less expensive alternative to

fossil fuels.

Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act in 1966 and for the first time set federal safety regulations for the

automobile industry.

Scientists established the Environmental Defense Fund and used its contributions for a series of legal actions across the country to halt

DDT spraying.

Many observers point to April 1970, as the clearest beginning of the environmental movement with the celebration of

Earth Day.

What act established emissions standards for factories and automobiles?

Clean Air Act.

Young people of the counterculture were commonly called ____.

hippies

any members of the counterculture "dropped out" and lived in _______, sharing living arrangements with other youths.

communes

Members of the Unification Church were popularly known as "_____."

Moonies

A picture of cans of soup repeated over and over is an example of _________ art.

pop

___________ is the belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically, and socially.

Feminism

By July 1972, the women's movement had a magazine of its own, called _________.

Ms.

Critics of affirmative action viewed it as a form of _________ discrimination, excluding qualified white workers from jobs, promotions, and school placement because of positions set aside for minorities.

reverse

To desegregate schools, many local governments instituted _________, requiring students to be transported to schools outside their neighborhoods to achieve greater racial balance.

busing

Many Hispanics wanted _________ in school, with classes taught in their own language while they were learning English.

bilingualism

The book Silent Spring assailed the increasing use of pesticides, particularly __________.

DDT

The counterculture originally held up a(n) _________ ideal: the ideal of a society that was freer, closer to nature, and full of empathy, tolerance, and cooperation.

utopian

A master of the new electrically amplified guitar sound was _________.

Jimi Hendrix

Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein were both ________.

pop artists

Two new religious groups that attracted considerable attention beginning in the 1960s were the Unification Church and the ________ movement; both were offshoots of established religions from abroad.

Hare Krishna

Protesters often bought their ____ in military surplus stores because the items they purchased there expressed their rejection of materialist values and blurred the lines of social class.

clothing

Unlike other groups demanding more assimilation into mainstream society, many Native Americans wanted greater __________ from it.

independence

Court decisions ratified Native American authority to impose _______ on businesses on their reservations and to perform other sovereign functions.

taxes

When California growers resisted the demand for union recognition and increased wages and benefits for workers, César Chávez organized a nationwide boycott of ________, one of California's largest agricultural products.

table grapes

Busing prompted a wave of opposition from many whites, who responded by taking their children out of public schools in what came to be called "_________."

white flight

founded the National Organization for Women

Betty Friedan

first African American mayor of Atlanta whose efforts opened job opportunities for minority contractors

Maynard Jackson

organized a group that fought for the rights of farmworkers

Dolores Huerta

sounded the alarm on the effect of pesticides on birds

Rachel Carson

master of the electric guitar

Jimi Hendrix

leader of the Unification Church

Sun Myung Moon

editor of Ms.

Gloria Steinem

main author of the Port Huron Statement

Tom Hayden

civil rights leader who founded PUSH

Jesse Jackson

pop artist who often used images of famous people

Andy Warhol

claim that qualified white workers were kept from jobs

reverse discrimination

living arrangement popular among the counterculture

commune

youth culture that represented a rebellion against the dominant culture

hippie

coal, oil, and natural gas

fossil fuels

seized and occupied for 70 days by American Indians

Wounded Knee

celebration that marked the beginning of the environmental movement

Earth Day

policy that prompted "white flight" to private schools

busing

believed that a few wealthy elites controlled politics

Students for a Democratic Society

kills insects and the birds that eat them

DDT

popular destination for youths of the counterculture

Haight-Ashbury

one of the most famous rock 'n' roll groups

The Beatles

derived its subject matter from elements of the popular culture

pop art

defined the views of the Students for a Democratic Society

Port Huron Statement

group living arrangements in which members shared everything and worked together

communes

young men and women with alternative ways of life, commonly called "hippies"

counterculture

a leading figure of the women's movement and editor of Ms. magazine

Gloria Steinem

in most cases outlawed paying men more than women for the same job

Equal Pay Act

the belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically, and socially

Feminism

wrote the book The Feminine Mystique, which led to the rise of a new feminist movement

Betty Friedan

prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against girls and young women in nearly all aspects of their operations, from admissions to athletics

Title IX

organized by African American members of Congress to represent the concerns of African Americans

Congressional Black Caucus

the practice of teaching immigrant students in their own language while they also learned English

bilingualism

a militant group of Native Americans who viewed the government's reform efforts as too modest

American Indian Movement

called for companies and institutions doing business with the government to recruit African American employees

affirmative action

a manifesto calling for policies to create greater economic opportunities on reservations

Declaration of Indian Purpose

notable figure of the consumer protection movement

Ralph Nader

a nuclear facility where low levels of radiation escaped from the reactor

Three Mile Island

created to set and enforce pollution standards, promote research, and coordinate anti-pollution activities with state and local governments

Environmental Protection Agency

wrote Silent Spring, one of the most controversial and powerful books of the 1960s

Rachel Carson

leader of residents at Love Canal who banded together and demanded the government address local health threats

Lois Gibbs

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