10th Grade TAKS Science Vocab: Objective 4

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35 terms · "The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter."

Compound

Composed of atoms of different substances that are chemically combined

Element

A substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances

Mixture

Combination of substances that do not combine chemically but do retain their individual properties

Physical properties

Characteristic of a material that can be observed without changing the identity of the material

Buoyancy

Ability of a fluid to exert and upward force on an object immersed in the fluid

Density

A ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume

Fluid

A material that flows and has no definite shape

Viscosity

A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow.

Law of conservation of mass

State that mass is neither created nor destroyed

Balanced chemical equation

Reaction in which the number of atoms of each kind of element is equal of both sides

Physical change

Alters the properties of a substance, but not its chemical composition

Rock cycle

Continuous dynamic set of processes by which rocks are changed into other types of rock

Igneous rock

Rock formed from magma hardening (physical change)

Sedimentary rock

Rock formed from rock fragments being compacted (physical change)

Metamorphic rock

Rock formed when heat and pressure are applied to other rocks, these new rocks have new chemical composition (chemical change)

State of matter

Physical forms in which all matter naturally exists

Chemical change

Process involving one or more substances changing into new substances

Digestion

The process of making food absorbable by breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds

Periodic group

A column of elements on the periodic table, these elements will have similar properties

Alkali metals

Elements in group 1A, very reactive, contain one valence electron

Noble Gases

Elements in group 8A, are not reactive, contain 8 valence electrons

Halogens

Elements in group 7A, very reactive, contain 7 valence electrons

Oxidation

The loss of electrons from the atoms of a substance

Rusting

The oxidation of iron

Solubility

The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure

Solute

The substance that dissolves

Solution

Uniform mixture that may contain solids, lquids, or gases

Solvent

The dissolving medium

Universal solvent

Water- due to its polarity and ability to dissolve many different solutes

Polar

Description of covalent solid in which electrons are shared unequally given the molecule charged parts

Acid

A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and turns blue litmus paper red

Base

A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue

Condensation

The process by which gas such as water vapor changes to liquid such as water- how clouds are formed

Precipitation

Forms of water such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail that fall from clouds and reach the earth's surface

Evaporation

The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state, such as water vapor

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