a thin, sheetlike structure that covers and prtects the body surface, line body cavities, and cover the inner surfaces of hollow organs. ex (digestive, reproductive, and respiratory )
2 major types of body membranes
1.) Epithelial membrane 2.) connective tissue membrane
composed of epithelial tissue and an undelying layer of specialized connective tissue
connective tissue membrane
composed exvlusively of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane
3 types of epithelial tissue membrane in the body
1.) cutaneous membrane 2.) serous membrane 3.) mucous membrane
the skin, primary organ of the integumentary system, one of the most important, one of the largest and most visible organ
composed of two distinct layers of tissue. 1st layer lines body cavities and the 2nd covers the organs in those cavities.
very thin, gluelike connective tissue that holds and supports the epithelial cells
lines the walls of a body cavity
covers the surface of organs found in the body cavities
a serous membrane in the thoracic cavity
serous membrances in the abdominal cavity
inflammation of the serous membrane in the abdominal cavity
epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior. ex( lining the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts.)
the transitional area that serves as a point of "fusion" where skin and mucous membranes meet
lining the spaces between bones and joints that are classified as connective tissue membranes
smooth and slick and secrete a think, colorless lubricating fluid
helps reduce friction between the opposing surfaces of bones in teh movable joints. Also known as small cushionlike sacs
the outermost layer of the skin. Stratified squamous epithelium
the deeper of the two layers. Made up of large connective tissue.
subcutaneous tissue/ hypodermis
thick layer of loose connective tissuse and fat
cells of the innermost layer
nature's most unique proteins. Tough, waterproof material that provides cells in the outer layer of the skin w/ a horny, abrasion- resistant, and protective quality.
the though outer layer of the epidermis
substance the gives color to the skin
the brown pigment. precents the sunds harmful ultraviolet rays from penetrating the interior of the body
specialized cells in the pigment layer that produce melanin
the skin turns a bluish gray color
exists between the thin epidermal layer of the skin above and the dermal layer below
upper region of the dermis that forms part of the dermal-epidermal junction and forms the ridges and groves of fingerprints
specialized structures required for hair growth
hair of a newborn infant. extemely fine and soft
small cap shaped cluster of cells and is located at the base of the follicle
tiny smooth involuntary muscle. Produces goosebumps
generally located close to the skin surface. Capable of dectecting sensations of light touch.
deep in the dermis. Capable of detecting pressure
visible part of the nail
rest of the nail
lies in a groove and is hidden by a fold of skin
crescent shaped white area. "little moon"
glands that secrete sweat. Also known as the sweat gland
2 groups of sweat glands
1.) eccrine 2.) apocrine
the more numerous, important, and wide spread sweat glands in the body. They producetransparetn, watery liquid.. also known as sweat
found primarily in the skin in the armpit and in the pigmented skin areas around the genitals
secrete oil for the hair and skin
secretion that lubricates the hair and skin
3 most common types of skin cancer
1.) squamouse 2.)basal 3.)malignant
rare form of skin cancer frequently associated with AIDS and other immune deficiencies
squamous cell carcinoma
is a slow growing malignant tumor of the epidermis
Basal cell carcinoma
the mose common type fo skin cancer, usually appears on the upper face.
the most seriousform of skin caner.
most important functions of the skin
1.) protection 2.) temperature regulation 3.) sense organ activity
"rules of nines"
one of the most commonly used methods of determining the extent of a burn injury. Dividing the body into 11 areas of 9% each helps to estimate the amout of skin surface burned in an adult
1st degree burn
causes minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin. epidermis may peel in 1-3 days, no blistering occurs
2nd degree burn
involves the deep epidermal layers and always causes injury to the upper layer of the dermis. Damages sweat glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
3rd degree burn
full-thinkness burn, characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis.Tissue death extends below the primary skin layers into the subcutaneous tissue.