What passes through the stylomastoid foramen?
Facial Nerve (Cranial Nerve VII)
Name and locate the paranasal sinuses
frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, paired maxillary bones
What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?
To warm and humidify the inspired air; to lighten the skull; to enhance the resonance of the voice
Why is the sphenoid bone considered the keystone of the cranium?
It forms a wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones
Why are the maxillae considered to be the keystones of the facial bones
The maxillae articulate with all other facial bones except for the manidble
What ligament attaches to the external occipital crest?
ligamentum nuchae attaches here on the occipital lobe
With what do the occipital condyles articulate?
C1 or atlas or the first vertebrae of the vertebral column
In what way does a throat infection involve the mastoid and what makes this condition dangerous?
The mastoid is in a close proximity to the middle ear cavity which is close to infections in the throat. Only a thin bone separates the mastoid from the brain. A throat infection could spread from the throat to the middle ear to the mastoid cavity to the brain.
Name the 3 parts of the nasal septum
vomer, ethmoind, septal cartilage
Name the bones and processes that form the hard palate
The horizontal process of the palatine bone, and the palatine process of the maxillary bones
Name the bones and processes that form the zygomatic arch
The zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone.
Name the 7 bones that contribute to the orbital cavity
maxillary, zygomatic, lacrimal, ethmoid, frontal, palatine, sphenoid (my zebra likes eating fried pastrami sandwiches)
Name the 14 facial bones
maxilla (x2), zygomatic (x2), inferior nasal concha (x2), nasal (x2), vomer, mandible, palatine (x2), lacrimal (x2)
Name the 8 cranial bones
frontal, parietal (x2), occipital, temporal (x2), ethmoid, sphenoid
Where are the auditory ossicles?
Embedded in the tympanic portion of the temporal bone (middle ear)
Where is the hyoid bone? What is its function? What is so unusual about this bone?
Inferior to skull, anterior to the vertebrae. "Floating"--doesn't articulate with any other bone directly. Movable base for the tongue; freer to move for swallowing & speech.
What is the function of the sella turcica?
It encases the pituitary gland.
What passes through the foramen magnum?
The inferior brain stem connects with the spinal cord.
What is TMJ syndrome?
What is the function of the crista galli?
It secures the dura mater to the bone. (dura mater=outer covering of brain)
What passes through the hypoglossal canal?
Hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII)
What passes through the internal auditory canal?
Facial nerve (VII) and Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
What passes through the foramen spinosum?
The middle menigeal artery (serving the internal face of some cranial bones)
What passes through the olfactory foramena?
Olfactory nerve (CN I)
What passes through the foramen ovale?
Trigeminal nerve (V)--the mandibular nerves
What passes through the superior orbital fissure?
Oculomotor Nerve (III), Trochlear nerve (IV), Abducens (VI)
What passes through the jugular foramen?
the internal jugular vein, Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the Vagus nerve (X), and Accessory nerve (XI)
What passes through the foramen rotundum?
Trigeminal nerve (V)--maxillary nerve branch
What is the function of the coronoid process of the mandible?
It is the insertion point of the temporalis muscle for lowering the jaw during chewing
What passes through the optic canal?
The optic nerves (II) and opthalamic artery
What passes through the carotid canal?
Internal carotid artery
What passes through the inferior orbital fissure?
zygomatic nerve [branch off maxillary V2 of Trigeminal nerve V], and maxillary nerve [V2 branch of Trigeminal nerve V ], and blood vessels
What is the function of the styloid process of the temporal bone?
Attachment for tongue and neck muscles, and ligament for hyoid bone.
Cranial Nerve I
Cranial Nerve II
Cranial Nerve III
Cranial Nerve IV
Cranial Nerve V
Cranial Nerve VI
Cranial Nerve VII
Cranial Nerve VIII
Cranial Nerve IX
Cranial Nerve X
Cranial Nerve XI
Cranial Nerve XII
I. Sensory. Smell
II. Sensory. Vision
III. Motor. Moves inferior oblique, superior, inferior, and medial rectus eye muscles
IV. Motor. Moves the superior oblique eye muscles
V. Both. V1 opthalmic (superior orbital fissure). V2 Maxillary (foramen rotundum). V3 Mandibular (foramen ovale)
VI. Motor. Moves lateral rectus eye muscle.
VII. Both. Internal acoustic meatus, stylomastoid foramen.Chief motor nerves of face.
VIII. Sensory. Equilibrium and hearing
IX. Both. Tongue and pharynx. Taste. Baroreceptors in carotid artery.
X. Both. Visceral organs. Baroreceptors in aorta.
XI. Motor. Moves trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
XII. Motor. Moves tongue for swallowing, eating and speech.
sympathetic chain ganglion
Cx or Co
L4, L5, S1-S4