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hyperventilation can cause

respiratory alkalosis

HCO-3 + H+ H2CO3CO2 + H2O

Circulating hydrogen ions and bicarb are shift through the carbonic acid intermediate to make more carbon dioxide.

How is respiratory failure defined?

PaO2 < 50 & PaCO2 > 50, pH < 7.35


a decreased or insufficient level of O2 in the tissues. May develop because of pneumonia because fluid in the lungs prevents diffusion of O2.

Cystic fibrosis

impedes growth and development due to lack of a pancreatic enzyme which leads to nutritional deficits. A defective gene affects a protein that controls the normal movement of sodium chloride in & out of cells and causes thick, sticky secretions in the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts.

Risks of Cystic Fibrosis

may develop respiratory issues such as bronchiectasis, chronic infections, collapsed lung, respiratory failure; digestive issues like diabetes, blocked bile duct, rectal prolapsed and intussusceptions.

Signs of CF in newborn

can't excrete meconium, salty skin, trouble with weight gain, cough or wheezing & large, greasy stools

Why does hypercalcemia occur because of a tumor with bronchogenic carcinoma?

Tumors secrete PTH which promotes absorption in the digestive tract, resorption of calcium from bone and inhibits secretion from the kidneys.

progressive emphysema prevents

gas exchange because increased residual lung volume prevents sufficient inhalation of O2 for the exchange

Tension pneumothorax contributes to hypoxia because

the victim can breathe in but, because of the flutter valve, air does not leave the plural space. As the condition progresses, there is less room to breathe in new air and mediastinal shift can compress the inferior vena cava

What confirms a diagnosis of TB?

The use of X-rays to detect calcifications in lungs.


a decrease or lack of all types of blood cells

Name a sign of sickle cell anemia


Why does jaundice occur in sickle cell anemia?

RBCs deoxygenate, harden and take on the typical sickle shape. The repeated change in shape shortens the life span of an RBC to about 20 days.

signs of anemia

pallor, chills, dyspnea, tachycardia and irritability. Anemia can cause angina in stressful situations. Chronic severe anemia can lead to CHF.

Why does pernicious anemia have an effect on RBCs?

The lack of B12 shortens the life span of RBCs.

What formed blood particles do leukemias decrease?

platelets in blood

Secondary polycythemia increases

hemoglobin due to chronic hypoxia. Doing a phlebotomy can lower the amount of RBCs.

Iron deficiency anemia is caused by

vegetarian diets, excessive menstrual flow, and hemorrhage due to hemorrhoid or cancer. Only 5-10% of ingested iron is absorbed but that increases to approx. 20% when there is a deficit.

Severe hypoxia with pneumonia occurs because

there is less O2 perfusion due to congestion in the lungs. Hypoxia is also caused by the residual volumes caused by emphysema.

Define Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)

an additional beat arising from a ventricular muscle cell or an ectopic pacemaker. These are related to pulse deficit (difference in rate between apical pulse and radial pulse). With premature ventricular contraction, no blood is being pumped; the PVC is only an extra beat. Occasional PVCs don't interfere with heart function, but as frequency increases or with paired PVCs, V-Fib can result and lead to cardiac arrest.

Define Preload

venous return to heart (pre-beat) while atria are relaxed

Afterload is determined by

peripheral resistance to opening of semilunar valves. It is increased by high diastolic pressure resulting from excessive vasoconstriction.

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine increase

systemic vasoconstriction

What is important about CSF?

an equal amount of cerebro-spinal fluid must be absorbed and produced simultaneously to maintain correct pressure


crossed eye or deviated eye, occurs when focusing on an object, causes diploplia. could lead to a reduction in vision of the affected eye


involuntary, sideways jerking motions of eyes; involuntary unilateral, bilateral or rhythmic eye movement; caused by Meniere's disease, brain tumor, brain injury, stroke, alcoholism, labrynthitis, stroke, some drugs

pink eye is caused by

an infection of S. aureus.

What causes DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)?

multiple clots which have used up all the clotting factors; heparin may be used to thin the blood and make more clotting factors available; caused by cancers of lung, pancreas, prostate, stomach and by acute myeloid leukemia, abruption placenta, pre-eclampsia, massive tissue injury, gram negative infections, liver disease.

What is the primary treatment for leukemia?


Is stroke volume identical from both ventricles?


Why is there a normal delay in conduction in the AV node?

It allows the ventricles to fill completely.

Increased HR and force of contraction is caused by:


vasodilation in the skin and viscera results from

relaxation in the smooth muscles of the arterioles

diuretics cause

a decrease in Na and fluid retention in the body

What causes thrombus formation?

immobility, vascular damage, atrial fib, artificial valves, hypercoagulability

With total heart block, what happens to ventricular contractions?

They are not as forceful and are irregular.

What are two characteristics of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea?

rales and hemoptysis

What are the effects of rheumatic fever?

changes in heart, can cause an abnormal immune response that affects all layers of the heart. signs include subQ nodules, epistaxis, fever, leukocytosis, issue with large joints like knees and hips.

Intermittent claudication

pain in legs during exercise (progresses to pain while resting) due to interruption of flow in the iliac artery. Intermittent claudication is a symptom od PAD.

dissecting aortic aneurysm

tear in endothelium that allows bleeding between layers of arterial wall

What is a common adverse effect of anti-hypertensive meds?

orthostatic hypotension

What's the most dangerous cardiac dysrhythmia?

Ventricular fibrillation because it's hard to shock the heart back into a normal sinus rhythm.

What is a confirming diagnosis of MI?

Changes in EKG and in isoenzymes like troponins, CKs and NBs

Does quiet expiration requires energy?


What is vital capacity?

The maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after the maximum amount of air is inhaled.

What is the air left in lungs between breaths?

Residual volume

Hypercapnia or increased PaCO2(too much CO2) causes

respiratory acidosis

Patients with respiratory alkalosis will

have too little CO2.

What is the most effective compensation for respiratory acidosis?

Kidneys increase production of bicarb.

Why do humans suffer repeated flu virus infections?

The virus mutates continually so that our immune systems are unable to recognize it.

Fibrosis of bronchial wall causes

chronic bronchitis

Atelectasis with airway obstruction causes

decreased breath sounds on the side of the affected lung

Adults or infants with ARDS have

respiratory alkalosis

Why does collateral circulation develop?

develops in a brain affected by atheroma if the condition develops over time. This may help prevent a CVA.

Where does a Berry aneurysm normally occur?

in bifurcations of the circle of Willis

What are the signs of a Berry aneurysm?

they are asymptomatic until they burst, then indicated by blood in CSF collected by LP.

What are the signs of meningitis?

nuchal rigidity, headache, vomiting, seizures, confusion, fever, lack of hunger or thirst, sleepiness or difficulty staying awake and skin rash, in some cases.

What causes encephalitis?

tick (spirochete) and mosquito bites

What is a depressed skull fracture?

A skull fracture where the broken bone is pushed to a level below the rest of the skull.

After a head injury, what causes secondary damage?

infection, pressure, bleeding

Secondary damage after SCI can include

catecholamine release, fracture of vertebrae, BP issues

How is seizure diagnosed?


What is flail chest?

a break of consecutive ribs in two places

What is tension pneumothorax?

a hole in the chest that allows air into the pleural cavity, air can't move back out because of a flap of skin or tissue that covers the opening on expiration.

Where is lumbar puncture performed and why?

between L3 and L4 because there is a wider opening there to accommodate the needle. At this level, there is less chance of damage to the spinal column because this is below the level of the cord.

What are the signs of Parkinson's disease?

difficulty swallowing and chewing, urinary retention problems and orthostatic hypotension.

Define cor pulmonale.

right side congestive heart failure which affects venous return to the heart, so blood backs up into the system.

What does left sided heart failure cause?

blood backup into lungs.

What do focal and generalized seizures indicate?

a tumor because of pressure from inflammation

How is CO2 transported through the blood?

as bicarb on an amino acid on the globin portion of hemoglobin

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