HCO-3 + H+ H2CO3CO2 + H2O
Circulating hydrogen ions and bicarb are shift through the carbonic acid intermediate to make more carbon dioxide.
a decreased or insufficient level of O2 in the tissues. May develop because of pneumonia because fluid in the lungs prevents diffusion of O2.
impedes growth and development due to lack of a pancreatic enzyme which leads to nutritional deficits. A defective gene affects a protein that controls the normal movement of sodium chloride in & out of cells and causes thick, sticky secretions in the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts.
Risks of Cystic Fibrosis
may develop respiratory issues such as bronchiectasis, chronic infections, collapsed lung, respiratory failure; digestive issues like diabetes, blocked bile duct, rectal prolapsed and intussusceptions.
Signs of CF in newborn
can't excrete meconium, salty skin, trouble with weight gain, cough or wheezing & large, greasy stools
Why does hypercalcemia occur because of a tumor with bronchogenic carcinoma?
Tumors secrete PTH which promotes absorption in the digestive tract, resorption of calcium from bone and inhibits secretion from the kidneys.
progressive emphysema prevents
gas exchange because increased residual lung volume prevents sufficient inhalation of O2 for the exchange
Tension pneumothorax contributes to hypoxia because
the victim can breathe in but, because of the flutter valve, air does not leave the plural space. As the condition progresses, there is less room to breathe in new air and mediastinal shift can compress the inferior vena cava
Why does jaundice occur in sickle cell anemia?
RBCs deoxygenate, harden and take on the typical sickle shape. The repeated change in shape shortens the life span of an RBC to about 20 days.
signs of anemia
pallor, chills, dyspnea, tachycardia and irritability. Anemia can cause angina in stressful situations. Chronic severe anemia can lead to CHF.
Secondary polycythemia increases
hemoglobin due to chronic hypoxia. Doing a phlebotomy can lower the amount of RBCs.
Iron deficiency anemia is caused by
vegetarian diets, excessive menstrual flow, and hemorrhage due to hemorrhoid or cancer. Only 5-10% of ingested iron is absorbed but that increases to approx. 20% when there is a deficit.
Severe hypoxia with pneumonia occurs because
there is less O2 perfusion due to congestion in the lungs. Hypoxia is also caused by the residual volumes caused by emphysema.
Define Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)
an additional beat arising from a ventricular muscle cell or an ectopic pacemaker. These are related to pulse deficit (difference in rate between apical pulse and radial pulse). With premature ventricular contraction, no blood is being pumped; the PVC is only an extra beat. Occasional PVCs don't interfere with heart function, but as frequency increases or with paired PVCs, V-Fib can result and lead to cardiac arrest.
Afterload is determined by
peripheral resistance to opening of semilunar valves. It is increased by high diastolic pressure resulting from excessive vasoconstriction.
What is important about CSF?
an equal amount of cerebro-spinal fluid must be absorbed and produced simultaneously to maintain correct pressure
crossed eye or deviated eye, occurs when focusing on an object, causes diploplia. could lead to a reduction in vision of the affected eye
involuntary, sideways jerking motions of eyes; involuntary unilateral, bilateral or rhythmic eye movement; caused by Meniere's disease, brain tumor, brain injury, stroke, alcoholism, labrynthitis, stroke, some drugs
What causes DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)?
multiple clots which have used up all the clotting factors; heparin may be used to thin the blood and make more clotting factors available; caused by cancers of lung, pancreas, prostate, stomach and by acute myeloid leukemia, abruption placenta, pre-eclampsia, massive tissue injury, gram negative infections, liver disease.
Why is there a normal delay in conduction in the AV node?
It allows the ventricles to fill completely.
vasodilation in the skin and viscera results from
relaxation in the smooth muscles of the arterioles
What causes thrombus formation?
immobility, vascular damage, atrial fib, artificial valves, hypercoagulability
With total heart block, what happens to ventricular contractions?
They are not as forceful and are irregular.
What are the effects of rheumatic fever?
changes in heart, can cause an abnormal immune response that affects all layers of the heart. signs include subQ nodules, epistaxis, fever, leukocytosis, issue with large joints like knees and hips.
pain in legs during exercise (progresses to pain while resting) due to interruption of flow in the iliac artery. Intermittent claudication is a symptom od PAD.
What's the most dangerous cardiac dysrhythmia?
Ventricular fibrillation because it's hard to shock the heart back into a normal sinus rhythm.
What is vital capacity?
The maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after the maximum amount of air is inhaled.
What is the most effective compensation for respiratory acidosis?
Kidneys increase production of bicarb.
Why do humans suffer repeated flu virus infections?
The virus mutates continually so that our immune systems are unable to recognize it.
Why does collateral circulation develop?
develops in a brain affected by atheroma if the condition develops over time. This may help prevent a CVA.
What are the signs of a Berry aneurysm?
they are asymptomatic until they burst, then indicated by blood in CSF collected by LP.
What are the signs of meningitis?
nuchal rigidity, headache, vomiting, seizures, confusion, fever, lack of hunger or thirst, sleepiness or difficulty staying awake and skin rash, in some cases.
What is a depressed skull fracture?
A skull fracture where the broken bone is pushed to a level below the rest of the skull.
What is tension pneumothorax?
a hole in the chest that allows air into the pleural cavity, air can't move back out because of a flap of skin or tissue that covers the opening on expiration.
Where is lumbar puncture performed and why?
between L3 and L4 because there is a wider opening there to accommodate the needle. At this level, there is less chance of damage to the spinal column because this is below the level of the cord.
What are the signs of Parkinson's disease?
difficulty swallowing and chewing, urinary retention problems and orthostatic hypotension.
Define cor pulmonale.
right side congestive heart failure which affects venous return to the heart, so blood backs up into the system.