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when and where did Mendel experiment?

1860s; Brunn, Austria

characteristics of pea plants

have the ability to cross pollinate, the fact that they grow rapidly, produce tremendous numbers of offspring, distinct and opposite traits

law of segregation

first law of heredity stating that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed

F1 generation

the first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a series of genetic crosses

F2 generation

the offspring from crosses among individuals of the F1 generation


genetic makeup of an organism


physical characteristics of an organism


offspring of two varieties


the location of an allele on the chromosome


the different forms of a gene


having two identical alleles for a trait


having two different alleles for a trait

theory of segregation

Alleles segregate from each other during meiosis, individual inherits allele from each parent

test- crossing

Determining whether an organism has a homozygous dominant or heterozygous phenotype by breeding it with an organism with a homozygous recessive phenotype

dihybrid cross

hybridization using two traits with two alleles each

blood types

A, B, AB and O. Type O is the universal donor and AB blood is known as the universal recipient.


a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive (IA and IB)


The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.

polygenic inheritance

occurs when groups of gene pairs act together to produce a specific trait

sex chromosomes

may carry some genes that have nothing to do with sex


A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs


male sex chromosomes


female sex chromosomes

fruit flies

small insects that are used in research of genetics


United States biologist who formulated the chromosome theory of heredity (1866-1945)

autosomal recessive disorder

requires two recessive alleles from the parents


one gene will mask the expression of another gene


has definite effect on skin color, growth of trees, and size of leaves

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