when and where did Mendel experiment?
1860s; Brunn, Austria
characteristics of pea plants
have the ability to cross pollinate, the fact that they grow rapidly, produce tremendous numbers of offspring, distinct and opposite traits
law of segregation
first law of heredity stating that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed
the first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a series of genetic crosses
the offspring from crosses among individuals of the F1 generation
genetic makeup of an organism
physical characteristics of an organism
offspring of two varieties
the location of an allele on the chromosome
the different forms of a gene
having two identical alleles for a trait
having two different alleles for a trait
theory of segregation
Alleles segregate from each other during meiosis, individual inherits allele from each parent
Determining whether an organism has a homozygous dominant or heterozygous phenotype by breeding it with an organism with a homozygous recessive phenotype
hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
A, B, AB and O. Type O is the universal donor and AB blood is known as the universal recipient.
a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive (IA and IB)
The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
occurs when groups of gene pairs act together to produce a specific trait
may carry some genes that have nothing to do with sex
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
female sex chromosomes
small insects that are used in research of genetics
United States biologist who formulated the chromosome theory of heredity (1866-1945)
autosomal recessive disorder
requires two recessive alleles from the parents
one gene will mask the expression of another gene
has definite effect on skin color, growth of trees, and size of leaves
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