the philosophy of the renaissance- it was a way of looking at life, marked by an interest in man adn the present life
is the best known writer of the Italian Renaissance, he studied classical literature and wrote popular love sonnets in Italian, born in 1304
Lenardo Da Vinci
lived in the 1400s, only 15 paintings still exist, Mona Lisa and the Last Supper are his famous works
a painter, a sculptor, architect, and poet; painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel- its been called "the greatest single masterpiece in the history of painting"; sculptures of David, Moses and Pieta; designed the Dome of St. Peter's Cathedral
a writer, lived in the 1500s, most famous work is the Prince
impact of printing press?
spread new ideas around, able to print books now, the bible was printed
the french word "rebirth"; a period in reinterest in learning, especially of the classical world with a new interest in the plesent life
Bartloeme De Las Casas
a spanish priest who became famous for trying to defend the Native Indians, and improve their treatment; he said Jesus died for them
Vasco da Gama
the greatest portugal explorer; in 1498 sailed around Cape of Good hope, went to India and returned, his cargo was worth 60 times the cost of the voyage
Portuguese who sailed for spain; left in 1519 with 5 ships and 243 men; sailed around S. America to India; Straight of Magellan named after him; only one ship, the victoria and 18 men completed the journey; his men were the first to circum-navigate the world
Henry the Navigator
from Portugal, he wanted to promote Portuguese power and spred the catholic faith especially in africa; established a school of coast of Portugal where generations of sailors learned navigation and ship building
became the dominant economic philosophy of renaissance and early modern Europe
Examples of the Columbian Exchange
cattle and horses were brought to the new world; small pox and mesals brought into new world; new items were potatoes, tomatoes, beans corn, cacao; syphallous brought back to old world; native indians died out by the millions due to disease, war and hard labor
German monk, lead the Protestant Reformation, wrote 95 thesises, beleived that you could get salvation by faith alone
What were the reasons for the Reformation ?
selling of indulgences, cultural differences between the pope& martin luther, & the printing press published Martin Luthers 95 thesies
What were the resluts of te Reformation?
everyone had acess to the Bible,church denominations,& religous wars
queen of England who made them perminaly prodastant; sister was Mary Queen of Scots (bloody mary)& she had her beheaded; never married so she was called the Vrgin Queen
became Queen after Edward, micknamed bloody mary becasue she wanted England back in the Cathloic Church so she killed Prodstant leaders (same as Mary Queen of Scots)
this king established church of england, influenced protestant reformation
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
What is the best example of a devine right monarchy?
Louis 14 (sun king)
England has this; laws understood by tradition
War of Spanish Armada
The war after which, Spain began to give way to france and England. because england sunk all of their ships and was no longer a world power
bloodless overthrow of King James II in 1689; this established William and Mary as the new leaders
Cromwel- Lord Protector
Cromwell disbanded parliament and took this title when parliament moved to quit funding the New Model Army
Edict of Nantes
the king granted the Hugenots freedom in this document
Louis XIV was called this, reigned for 72 years (this was the longest reign of any europiean monarch)
opponets of the Cavaliers in the english civil war; mostly Puritians from the middle class
the people who supported the king in the English Civil War; mostly came from upper classes
the family dynasties -china
In japan different families controlled different parts of the land. it was hereditary so you basically inherited your father's land.
Jesuit missionary- went to Japanese and were at first very successful
Beijing. It was called this because ordinary people were not allowed there.
present day Thailand
source of Russian culture
mostly Asian culture until Peter the Great
Prussias role in Germany
the Hohenzolleren family made it a superpower and the basis for what would later be germany.
Peter the Great
russia; was 6'9, had red hair (ginger!), entergetic, violent temper, admired louy 14, traveled to europ in disguise as a common soldier and worked in shipyard, moved capital to st petersburg-window in the west,
Matthew Perry in Japan
of the USA; came to Japan with his naval fleet in 1853 & would begin to enter the "modern world"
greatest of Japan's founding fathers, given credit for uniting Japan
Jesuit Priest who made a positive impression on Ming China
Zheng He and China's Martime expidetions
Zehng was the leader of Chinas maritime expeditions and he had the most advanced ships on earth at the time andd they were also the largest by far. he viseted the middle east and Africa and it is rumored that he even reached north and South America. However The gov. saw these voyages as a waste of money.
"Window on the West"
St. petersburg was considered this by peter the great
Russia was called this
Asian attitudes towards the west
they wanted to be isolated because they considered themselves to be a lot better than people in the U.S
last pure chinese dynasty, emperor- hongwu- son was youngle, capital was beijing, name means brilliant, population grew, confusionism grew stronger, cival service exams came back, maritime explorations, jesuit priests came in
had strong military rulers, emperor lived in kyoto, would never overthrow an emperor, 250 years of peace, no one allowed in, pop. grew, confusionism, buddism, and shintoism all had adherents in japan, haiku and kabuki
Where was the Ottoman Empire located?
present day Turkey
What was the capital of the Ottman Empire ?
Where was he Safavid Empire located?
empire that was located in Persia; present day Iran
What was the importance of the Suez Cannal to Britian?
direct trade route to India
George Washington of Latin Amercain; liberated 3 countries in Latin Amercia
"sick man of Europe"
this is what the Europeians called the Ottoman empire
slavery in Brazil?
they used the most slaves
social ranking; people from Europe then moved to New World
social ranking; Europieans born in the New World
Colnies owned bt the British
African Colonies-- South African, Sudan, &Egypt
Asian Colonies-- India, Bruma, &Miliasa?
Akbar the Great
Babur's grandson, the greatest ruler of modern India.
African tribe; would steal slaves and sell them to Eupopieans
Chrstian boys who were forced into the Sultan and made into one of the finest military at the time
Battle o Ain Jalut
stoped Mongol invasion of Africa
Ottoman treatment of Chrstians ?
the ottoman empire made the Chrsitans pay a tax so they could be chrstians
Abolished the slave trade in Great Britian
lead the slave revolt in Haiti
the place where women and children live; its a Muslim practice
ruler of the ottoman empire
a prime minister that advises the caliph
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
Dutch settlers in south Africa
was the only place to have a sucessful slave revolt in the new world
Atlantic slave trade
slaves were traded across the atlantic ocean
like the Osama Bin Laden to the British
also know as the age of reason or scietific revloution
What two places was Napoliean unadble to defeat and why?
Great Brittian& Russia...... was unable to defeat Great Britt. because had a good navy and Napoleon didn't so they could never defeat them & unable to defeat Russia because Russia used the scorched earth policy so Napoleon didnt have any supplies for his troops and wasnt prepared at all, especially for the winter
Napolean's cde of law which is the basis for law in france, latin America and the state of Louisiana.
best known English philosopher; believed people have natural rights- life, liberty, property; government were to protect and secure these rights for people and if they dont they could change the gov't
astronomer, heliocentric; discovered 4 of 13 of Jupiter's moon; created his own telescope; proved the earth did move, on its axis; brought before the inquisition to recant; after he went blind he continued to work on his theories and studies
Czar Alexander I
opposing ruler of Napoleon, ruler of Russia, angered Napoleon by not enforcing the ban on trade with Britain
the radical group, wanted a republic, started the Reign of Terror, Robespierre was main leader
Tennis Court Oath
oath where they declared they would not disband until they got: a new constitution with equal rights and equal taxes; took place on a tennis court
Congress of Vienna
met to restore europe; it was the major powers who met: Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and (defeated) France
Battle of Trafalgar
off the coast of spain, british (lord nelson) vs french (Napoleon), spanish were defeated and Nelson was mortally wonded
the leaders of enlightment
everyone else, the peasants, especially the growing bourgeoisie living in cities like paris, were 98% of the population, shared the rest of the land not owned by the church, had no role in gov't
the middlde class in france part of the third estate
The big leader of the National Convention; wanted a republic; executed many people then he was executed and that ended the national convention and the reign of terror
believed in separation of powers in govt: Judicial, executive, legislative
one of the many government instituted during the french revolution
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
List 5 reasons why great Britain was the first nation to experience the Industial Revolution?
had plentiful deposits of coal and iron; had a good transportation system for the time; was center of trade with its colonial empire; had a work force and its government was probusiness; it had a navy and merchant fleet that was the best in the world
biggest indstury for textiles
one of the three basic economic theories that developed; when individuals own the businesses; adam smith wrote the book the wealth of nations that supported this- was called Laissez-faire capitalism
one of the three basic economic theories that developed; a modification of capitalism; that governent should intervene in the economy and even own key industries for the public good; robert owen; Sweden is an example of a democratic socialist nation
one of the three basic economic theories that developed; a radical kind of socailism; developed by Karl Marx; russia became the first commusist country called the USSR/soviet union; places that practice this: North Korea, china, cuba, and Vietnam
of england was an early socialist who incorporated progressive ideas in the factories he owned
developed communism, german who lived in england, wrote communist manifesto and das Rapital- were about his beliefs; believed that eventually a pure communism would develop wehre all would be completely equal politically and economically - no govenment would even be needed
he took a primitive steam engline and improved it
was american; invented the steal plow
first indstury to use the factory system
this came before the Indurstrial Revloution; inventions from this were the steel plow & cotton gin
Britian, Russia, and France
Central Powers (of world war 1)
Germany, Austia-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
Why did the USA enter World War 1?
because of the zimmerman telegram
Versailles Treaty details
the treaty that ended WW1 and written to basically punish Germany
invasion of Belgium
the reason why Birttian enterd the war
Why did the USA not join the League of Nations?
because the US congress never approved the treaty because they did not like Wilson, so they never joined
archduke of A-H and his assasination sparked the powderkeg of europe
telegram sent to mexico from Britian and it said for Mexico to invade the U.S.
central power in WW1
Central power in WW1
"Powderkeg of Europe"
the balkans were called this; many of their nationall and ethnic interests were in unrest
League of Nations
the most important of wilsons fourteen points; the forerunner of the United Nations
US president; said "the world must be made sage for democracy" proclaimed his fourteen points
site of battle between geremany and soviet union; considered a major turning point in the war
US attacks Nazi Controlled France.
Geremany, Italy, & Japan
FDR and Truman
US presidents durring WW2
1938-Meeting between British,French,and German leaders in which Germany was given control of the Sudetenland in exchange for German leader Hitler's promise to make no more claimes on European territory
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
locations that in japan that US dropped nuclear bombs on; they bombs totaly wipped out everyone in these cities
dictator of Germany; founder of Nazi party
leader of Italy
lightning warfare; germany used this philosphy