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The consumer revolution of the early nineteenth century

was accompanied by the emulation of aristocratic manners.

The ________ was an early nineteenth century development that constituted the combined solution to the problems of locating sufficient capital, transporting raw materials to factories and products to consumers, and supervising large numbers of workers.

"market revolution"

The first American factory was developed by

Samuel Slater to spin cotton thread.

The merchant who headed the Boston Associates, owner of the innovative Waltham mills, was

Francis Cabot Lowell.

As the gap between owners and workers increased in the 1840s, American workers

failed to become a self-conscious working class.

Most workers in the earliest textile factories were

women and children.

Under the Waltham System,

young farm women worked and lived under strictly supervised conditions.

The Boston Associates built textile mills in which young single New England women worked under relatively pleasant conditions. This was called the ________ System.

Waltham

The American population more than doubled between 1790 and 1820 primarily because of the

high birthrate

In the 1830s and 1840s, most of the thousands of poor and wretched immigrants who flooded into America came from

Ireland and Germany

The modern method of organizing large enterprises, the corporation, was

developing slowly before 1860

In the early nineteenth century, businesses became corporations by obtaining a charter

through a special act of a state legislature.

One consequence of American industrialization in the early nineteenth century was

a decline in the need for foreign goods and thus in the business of merchants.

By far the most important indirect effect of industrialization occurred when the

South began to produce cotton to supply the new textile mills of New England and Great Britain.

A disadvantage of upland or "green-seed" cotton was that it

was very difficult to separate the seeds from the lint.

The inventor of a cotton gin, which removed seeds from upland cotton, was

Eli Whitney

As a result of the cotton gin,

cotton production soared and the Southern economy boomed.

For a generation after 1815, the most expansive force in the American economy was

cotton.

The racial beliefs of most white Americans in the last decades of the eighteenth century were characterized by their

continuing faith that slavery was a stagnant and declining institution.

A successful and bloody slave revolt led to the creation in 1804 of the black republic of

Haiti

The Republic of Liberia in western Africa

was founded by the American Colonization Society and was the eventual home to 12,000 American blacks.

The colonization of Sierra Leone in the nineteenth century

was mostly unsuccessful.

The cotton boom in the early nineteenth century caused a

strict enforcement of laws against the interstate slave trade.

"Jersey negroes appear to be particularly adapted to this market...We have the right to calculate on large importations in the future, from the success which hitherto attended the sale." This quote from a Southern newspaper describes the

interstate slave trade.

One advantage which Northern blacks had over Southern blacks was their

ability to organize movements to protest their treatment.

The natural highway for western commerce and communication in the early nineteenth century was the ________ River.

Mississippi

The first modern road in the United States was built in the 1790s to connect Philadelphia and

Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

In the 1790s and early 1800s, private companies built roads called

turnpikes.

Most early "internal improvements" were built

by private businesses, with substantial aid from governments.

Which of the following statements about the U.S. highway system in the nineteenth century is true?

The U.S. government had no comprehensive highway program in the nineteenth century.

In the nineteenth century, Congress

did not even discuss the possibility of federal funding for roads.

American inventor Robert Fulton perfected the first commercially successful

steamboat.

A major improvement in the transportation network in the 1820s and 1830s was the construction of

flatboats.

The greatest advantage which early canals offered was

a direct link between western areas and the eastern seaboard.

The mayor of New York City who organized information and political influence to convince the state legislature to construct the Erie Canal was

DeWitt Clinton

"As an organ of communication between the Hudson, the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence, the great lakes of the north and west, and their tributary rivers, [the canal] will create the greatest inland trade ever witnessed. The most fertile and extensive regions of America will avail themselves of its facilities for a market." This was a defense of the

Erie Canal.

Immediately after the Erie Canal was completed, it

was a financial success.

In 1818 the first regularly scheduled passenger and freight service between New York and England was opened by the

Black Ball Line.

The Erie Canal

solidly established New York City's importance in commerce.

Attempts to build canals in ________ often resulted in financial disaster.

the West

Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall thought that manufacturing and business should be

favored by the government since they promoted order and progress.

The Supreme Court's decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) upheld the

principle of the sanctity of contracts.

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the National Bank of the United States and also strengthened the implied powers of Congress and aided economic growth when it decided the case of

McCulloch v. Maryland.

In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court and Justice Marshall

defined commerce in a very broad sense.

The chief contribution of John Marshall to economic development was his

broadly national view of economic affairs.

The Supreme Court decision that promoted economic development by rejecting the absolute sanctity of contracts when they conflicted with improvements for the good of the whole community was

the Charles River Bridge case.

Part of the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson was the

elimination of property qualifications for voting and holding office.

Prior to the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson, presidential candidates were usually chosen by a

congressional caucus.

During John Quincy Adams' presidency, the politician who prepared for the next election by relying on his military reputation and portraying himself as losing the presidency in 1824 due to the "corrupt bargain" was

Andrew Jackson.

In the election of 1828,

Andrew Jackson defeated John Quincy Adams in a contest disgraced by character assassination on both sides.

Who does the text describe as "the symbol for a new democratically oriented generation"?

Andrew Jackson.

The basic concept underlying the "spoils system" was that

party workers must be rewarded with political office after a successful campaign.

One of the "fundamental tenets of Jacksonian Democracy" was that

ordinary Americans could do anything.

Jackson's advisers who did not hold regular cabinet appointments were called the

Kitchen Cabinet.

Jackson's view of the presidency differed from his predecessor's primarily in his belief that the

scope of federal authority should be expanded at the states' expense.

The 1830 debate between Senators Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne focused on

the doctrine of states' rights as opposed to national power.

In response to the espousal of the states' rights doctrine on the Senate floor by South Carolinian Robert Hayne, which of the following argued that the Constitution was a compact of the people and that the Union was indissoluble?

Daniel Webster

Daniel Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne"

helped to prevent the formation of a West-South alliance.

Other than Jackson's personal popularity, the main campaign issue in the presidential election of 1832 was

the Bank of the United States.

Nicholas Biddle realized that he could use the Second National Bank as a

rudimentary central bank.

________ was a leading enemy of the Second National Bank of the United States.

Andrew Jackson

The senator who pushed for renewal of the Bank of the United States charter in 1832 to provide himself a campaign issue against Jackson was

Henry Clay

Jackson defended his veto of the charter of the Second National Bank on the grounds that it was

unconstitutional, despite the Supreme Court.

Of the second Bank of the United States, who believed that it was making "the rich richer and the potent more powerful"?

Andrew Jackson

Jackson's most powerful weapon against the Bank of the United States was the

ability to withdraw government revenues from the Bank.

Jackson's attitude toward nullification was to

oppose it because of his devotion to the Union.

The conflict between Jackson and Calhoun was sharpened by their strong disagreement over the

Webster-Hayne debate.

Like fellow Westerners, President Jackson

preferred that local projects be left to the states.

Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans was to

remove them to lands west of the Mississippi.

About the removal of tribes, who wrote in Democracy in America about "the frightful sufferings that attend these forced migrations"?

Alexis de Tocqueville

The Native American nation forced to move from Georgia as a result of Jackson's policies was the

Cherokee.

Jackson opposed John Marshall's rulings about the Cherokee Nation in Georgia because he

believed no independent nation could be allowed to exist within the United States.

How did white Southerners react to northern criticisms of slavery?

Radical South Carolinians were convinced that both the protective tariff and the agitation against slavery were examples of tyranny of the majority.

The southern political thinker who most prominently justified southern resistance to the Tariff of 1828 was

John C. Calhoun.

South Carolina's challenge to the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 is called the

Nullification Crisis.

"The laws of the United States must be executed. I have no discretionary power on the subject...Those who told you that you might peaceably prevent their execution deceived you...Disunion by armed force is treason. Are you really ready to incur its guilt?" This was the response of Andrew Jackson to the actions of

South Carolina

The outcome of the Nullification Crisis convinced the radical South Carolina planters that

nullification and secession could succeed only with the support of other states.

During 1835 and 1836, as a result of the creation of the "pet" banks,

the money supply increased rapidly and fueled wild speculation in land.

President Jackson issued the ________ in 1836 to require purchase of public land in gold or silver.

Specie Circular

What effect did Jackson's economic policies have on the business cycle?

They exaggerated the swings of the economic pendulum through the impact of their ill-considered policies on public thinking.

Which of the following caused panic in the country in the spring of 1837?

the inability of banks to make specie payments

Of whom was he speaking when Alexis de Tocqueville said, "Far from wishing to extend Federal power, [he] belongs to the party that wishes to limit that power."?

Andrew Jackson

An underlying principle commonly agreed upon by Jacksonians was

suspicion of special privileges and large business corporations.

The Jacksonians who championed giving the "small man" his chance were the

Locofocos.

The new political coalition which emerged to challenge Democratic control in the 1830s was called the

Republicans.

The unifying principle of the Whig party was

opposition to "King Andrew" Jackson.

The Whig party's strategy in the election of 1836 was to

run several candidates in the hope that the House of Representatives would decide the election.

Martin Van Buren's response to the Panic of 1837 was to

reject government interference in the economy.

Martin Van Buren's chief goal as president was to

find an acceptable substitute for the state banks as a place to keep federal funds.

President Van Buren attempted to "divorce" the government from all banking activities through the

Independent Treasury Act.

In the election of 1840 the Whig's presidential nominee, who was a former military hero whose political opinions were largely unknown, was

William Henry Harrison.

Over what issue did Davy Crockett split with President Jackson, eventually costing him his congressional seat?

removal of Indians from the South

Immediately after Harrison's inauguration,

Harrison died, was succeeded by the doctrinaire John Tyler, and the political climate of the country changed dramatically.

The famous book in which Alexis de Tocqueville analyzed American society was

Democracy in America.

During the 1830s and 1840s the economic differences between the rich and the poor

constituted a wide and growing gap, especially in the larger eastern cities.

By the 1830s, non-agricultural work increasingly took place

outside the home

What was the effect of the growth of the factory system and of cities on middle-class families?

Mothers' power increased because they now worked at home.

"The formation of the moral and intellectual character of the young is committed mainly to the female hand...The mother forms the character of the future man." This statement supports the concept of

the Cult of True Womanhood

Middle-class families in the 1830s had a(n)

declining birthrate.

Among middle-class families, children came to be seen increasingly as

innocent and morally superior.

The most effective preacher of the Second Great Awakening was

Charles Grandison Finney.

A typical theme of the Second Great Awakening was that

people could take their salvation into their own hands.

Evangelist Charles Grandison Finney's success depended upon

emotional release through personal testimony of salvation.

What your text labels "the third pillar of the emerging American middle class," alongside the family and church, which had neither colonial precedents nor European equivalents, was

voluntary associations.

The communitarian group whose members were celibate, held their property in common, valued simplicity and industriousness, stressed equality of labor, and practiced a joyful and fervent religion was

the Shakers

The Illinois town founded by Mormon leader Joseph Smith as a semi-independent state within the federal Union was

Nauvoo

The communitarian group which attempted to change society the least were the

Fourierists.

Individual reformers who tried to care for the physically and mentally disabled were

usually more effective than the more colorful communitarian reformers.

The pioneer in developing methods for educating deaf people who opened a school for deaf students in 1817 was

Thomas Gallaudet.

One of the most striking aspects of the various practical reform movements of the early nineteenth century was their

emphasis on creating special facilities for dealing with social problems.

The Auburn system was a pioneering experiment in

prison reform

"[C]hained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience," is the way which of the following described the deplorable conditions of insane asylums to Massachusetts state legislators?

Dorothea Dix

During the 1820s, Americans' per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages

increased to the highest point ever in American experience.

Catholic immigrants from Germany and Ireland often

objected to demands for prohibition of all alcohol.

The first effective state law prohibiting the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was passed by

Maine.

No reform movement of the early nineteenth century was "more significant" and "more ambiguous" than

abolitionism.

William Lloyd Garrison's views on slavery might best be described as

uncompromising.

During the 1830s and 1840s, most white Americans thought William Lloyd Garrison's views were

unconvincing and confrontational.

In his autobiography and speeches, Frederick Douglass insisted that

full social, political, and economic equality for blacks was required.

The most influential black abolitionist was

Frederick Douglass.

An important factor in encouraging the growth of the women's rights movement was the

female abolitionists' recognition that, like the slaves, they were born into the caste system which destined them for menial roles in society.

One of the few advocates of women's rights who did not begin her career in the abolitionist movement and who made a frontal assault on all forms of sexual discrimination in Women in the Nineteenth Century was

Margaret Fuller

The co-organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and author of its Declaration of Sentiments was

Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

The Declaration of Sentiments from the Seneca Falls Convention states "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal." A primary author of this statement was

Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Susan B. Anthony played a prominent role in the women's rights movement because she was the first to

see the need for thorough organization.

The greatest expression of Romanticism in the United States was through

transcendentalism.

Both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau

objected to many of society's restrictions on the individual

"When were the good and the brave ever in a majority?...If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer." The author of these statements was

Henry David Thoreau.

The American transcendentalist who defended his refusal to pay taxes to support the Mexican War in his essay "Civil Disobedience" was

Henry David Thoreau.

The American writer whose works are filled with examples of wild imagination and fascination with mystery, fright, and the occult is

Edgar Allan Poe

One of Hawthorne's greatest works, The Scarlet Letter, is a(n)

grim but sympathetic analysis of the consequences of adultery.

Herman Melville's book which your text calls "one of the finest novels written by an American" is

Moby-Dick

"I celebrate myself and sing myself. And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you." This was written by

Walt Whitman in "Song of Myself."

Walt Whitman's book of poems in rambling free verse on commonplace topics in coarse language was

Leaves of Grass.

The text describes the works of Walt Whitman as

the most authentically American of any writer of the period.

Describing the dissemination of culture, the text observes that northern society was permeated by

middle-class concern for being cultivated and refined.

The mutual improvement societies which conducted discussions, sponsored libraries, lobbied for better schools, and presented lectures on a variety of topics were called

lyceums.

The most basic goal of the common school movement was

education for democracy.

By the 1850s, the common school movement had succeeded in establishing

free elementary schools and public institutions for teacher training in every state outside the South.

The most compelling argument for the success of the common schools was that they

brought Americans of different economic and ethnic backgrounds together in mutually beneficial contact.

In Jacksonian America private colleges

had too few students for too many colleges.

The staunch states' rights advocate who became president when William Henry Harrison died was

John Tyler.

Everyone in Tyler's cabinet except Daniel Webster resigned when Tyler opposed Henry Clay's plans and

vetoed the new National Bank.

The peace treaty of 1783 with England granted the United States all the land

drained by rivers flowing into the Atlantic.

In the controversy leading to the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, England's main goal was to

build a military road.

The ________ Treaty settled the disputed boundary between Maine and New Brunswick and demonstrated the growing Anglo-American economic dependence.

Webster-Ashburton

Before Texas gained its independence in 1836, a major conflict between American settlers in Texas and the Mexican government was

Mexico's abolition of slavery.

In the battle over the independence of Texas, the slaughters at Goliad and at ________, a former mission, made peaceful settlement of the dispute with Mexico almost impossible.

the Alamo

The leader of the Texas independence movement and first president of the Republic of Texas was

Sam Houston

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