Pathophysiology Exam 4

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online quizzes

A 1-year old female is diagnosed with croup. When the parents asks what caused this, what is the nurse's best response? The most likely cause of this disease is:

Viral Infection

WHile planning care, a nurse recalls respiratory distress and hypoxemia in laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by:

Mucosal Edema.

A 5-year-old male presents with high fever, inspriatory stridor, severe respiratory distress, drooling and dysphagia. Which of the following behaviors by the student nurse would be a cause for concern?

The student nurse examines the throat for redness

A 10-year old male was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. When the parents ask what treatment comes next, how should the nurse respond? The treatment will most likely be tried first is:

Tonsillectomy and adeniodectomy (T&A)

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. When obtaining the patient's history, which of the following is the most important predisposing factor for this condition?

Premature Birth

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. A nurse monitors the newborn for atelectasis because of:

lack of surfactant

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. A nurse recalls cardiovascular alterations seen in respiratory distress syndrom include:

Opening of fetal shunt pathways

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. The nurse reports this condition appeared:

Within minutes of birth

During a respiratory assessment of an infant with respiratory distress syndrome, a sinking in the supraclavicular and intercostal areas of the thorax was noted with inspiration. This observation is documented as:

Retractions

An infant was born 10 weeks premature and put on mechanical ventilation. Two months later he presents with hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe documented on the chart?

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

A 6-month-old female presents with rhinorrhea, cough, poor feeding, lethargy and fever. She is diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Which of the following will the nurse most likely observe on the culture report?

Respiratory syncytial virus

A 2-year-old male presents with fever and cough. He is diagnosed with pneumonia. Which planning treatment for this patient, the nurse recognizes that which of the following is the most likely cause?

Viruses

An 11-year-old female presents with a low grade fever and cough. She is diagnosed with atypical pneumonia. what type of pneumonia does the nurse suspect the patient is experiencing?

mycoplasma pneumonia

A 2-week old female presents with fever, cough, respiratory disress and empyema. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

staphylococcal pneumonia

A 9-year old male contracted influenza. Which of the following complications is of greatest concern to the nurse

Bronchiolitis obliterans

While planning care for a child with asthma, which of the following is a characteristic of asthma?

prolonged expirations

A 14 year old male is experiencing an asthma exacerbation. When reviewing the lab results, which of the following cells in the submucosa promote this inflammatory response and will be elevated?

eosinophils

a 13 year old female is diagnosed with asthma. Which of the following should the nurse teach the patient to recognize as part of an asthmatic attack?

Wheezing

A geneticist is discussing cystic fibrosis. Which information should be included? CF is an _____ disease.

Autosomal recessive

A 2 year old female fell in a swimming pool and nearly drowned. She then developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Which of the following should the nurse assess the patient for?

Hypoxemia

While reviewing lab results, to help confirm a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in a 1 year old child which substance will be present in the child's sweat?

Sodium Chloride

A 7 month old male presents with cystic fibrosis (CF) accompanied by failure to thrive and frequent, loose and oily stools. Sweat testing reveals increased chloride. Which of the following should the nurse observe for that would accompany this disease?

A thick mucus

A young patient is admitted to the pediatric unit with cystic fibrosis exacerbation. The nurse monitors the patient closely because the main cause of death in a child with CF is:

respiratory failure

A nurse is teaching about sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Which information should the nurse include? SIDS peaks between __ and __ months of age.

3, 4

A 5 month old female is found dead in her crib. The coroner ruled sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as the cause of death. Which of the following risk factors is most likely associated with SIDS?

Frequent respiratory infections

To prevent sudded infant death syndrome, the nurse should instruct parents to:

always lay infants down on their backs to sleep

a 1 year old female is diagnosed with croup. Which of the following symptoms is most likely to be present when the nurse performs an assessment?

Barking cough, stridor, hoarseness

A nurse remembers bronchiolitis mainly occurs in children under the age of ____.

1

Asthma affects ___% of children between 5 and 17 years of age.

10

A 10 year old female develops pneumonia. Physical exam reveals subcostal and intercostal retractions. She reports that breathing is difficult and she feels she cannot get enough air. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?

dyspenea

a 20 year old male presents to his primary care provider reporting difficulty breathing when lying down. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?

Orthopnea

a 50 year old diabetic male did not take his medication and is now in metabolic acidosis. He is experiencing Kussmaul respirations. What type of breathing will the nurse observe upon assessment?

a slight increased ventilatory rate, large tidal volumes, and no expiratory pause.

A 30 year old female received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing with periods of apnea. What term should the nurse use when charting this condition?

Cheyne-Strokes

Which patient would the nurse assess for paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)? A patient with:

left ventricular failure

A 20 year old male is in acute pain. An arterial blood gas reveals decreased carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Which of the following does the nurse suspect is the most likely cause?

Hyperventilation

A 65 year old female with emphysema presents to the ER for difficulty breathing. Physical exam reveals bluish skin and mucous membranes. How should the nurse chart this condition?

cyanosis

a 28 year old male reports to his primary care provider that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secreations. When giving report, what term should the nurse use to describe this condition?

hemoptysis

A nurse is reviewing the results of an ABG and finds reduced oxygenation of arterial blood. What term should the nurse use to describe this condition?

hypoxemia

A group of mountain climbers experiencing confusion, tachycardia, edema, and decreased renal output after climbing Mount Rainier. A nurse recalls this condition is caused by:

decreased inspired oxygen

A nurse remembers a low ventilation-perfusion ratio results in:

shunting

When the pulmonologist discusses the condition in which a series of alveoli in the left lower lobe receive adequate ventilation but do not have adequate perfusion, which statement indicates the nurse understands this condition? When this occurs in a patient it is called:

alveolar dead space

A 30 year old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustains trauma to the lungs and chest wall. He experiences respiratory failure. Which of the following lab values would the nurse expect?

Elevated PaCO2

A nurse is teaching staff about pulmonary edema. Which information should the nurse include? The most common cause of pulmonary edema is:

left heart failure

A 47 year old male is diagnosed with pulmonary edema. Which assessment findings will the nurse observe?

pink, frothy sputum

A 65 year old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. He now has aspiration of gastric contents. The nurse assesses the patient for which complication?

pneumonia

A 26 year old female recently underwent surgery and is now experiencing dyspnea, cough, fever and leukocytosis. Tests reveal that she has a collapsed lung caused by removal of air from obstructed alveoli. What condition will the nurse observe on the chart?

Absorption atelectasis

a 45 year old male undergoes lung transplantation. He now suffers from airway occlusion secondary to fibrosis. Which diagnosis will the nurse see on the chart?

Bronchiolitis obliterans

A 50 year old male presents with hypotension, hypoxemia, and tracheal deviation to the left. Tests reveal that the air pressure in the pleural cavity exceeds barometric pressure in the atmosphere. Based upon these assessment findings, what does the nurse suspect that patient is experiencing?

Tension Pneumothorax

A 60 year old female with a history of cirrhosis presents with dyspena, impaired ventilation, and pleural pain. A diagnosis of pleural effusion is made and a watery fluid is drained. When giving report, the nurse will refer to this fluid as:

transudative

an 80 year old female develops pneumonia in the hospital. She becomes cyanotic, tachycardic and develops a fever and cough. Chest x-ray reveals pus in the pleural space. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis documented on the chart?

empyema

a 54 year old male is diagnosed with empyema. Upon receiving and reviewing the culture result, which organism does the nurse suspect is the most likely cause?

staphylococcus aureus

a 15 year old female is diagnosed with restrictive lung disease caused by fibrosis. The patient had a pulmonary functions test. Which of the following findings is expected?

decreased functional residual capacity

a 57 year old male presents with cough, sputum production, dyspnea and decreased lung volume. He is diagnosed with pneumoconiosis. When taking the patient's history, which finding is the most probable cause of his illness?

inhalation of silica, asbestos, mica

a 42 year old female presents with dyspnea; rapid shallow breathing; inspiratory crackles; decreased lung compliance; and hypoxemia. Tests reveal a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Which of the following shows a correct cause and effect sequence in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?

Alveolocapillary membrane injury causing a massive inflammatory response

a 60 year old female with emphysema is having difficulty expiring a given volume of air. When giving report, the nurse will relay that the patient is most likely experiencing ___ pulmonary disease.

obstructive

When the nurse is asked what causes asthma, how should the nurse respond? Asthma is thought to be caused by:

interactions between genetic and environmental factors

A nurse recalls asthma is classified by:

clinical severity

A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about asthma. Which information should the nurse include? Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is related to:

Exposure to an allergen causing mast cell degranulation

A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about asthma. Which information should the nurse include? Airway obstruction contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is caused by:

mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema

A 10 year old male is brought to the ER with prolonged bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia. The most likely diagnosis on the chart is;

Status asthmaticus

a 22 year old female presents with chronic bronchitis. Tests reveal closure of the airway during expiration. While planning care, a nurse recalls this condition is most likely caused by:

thick mucus from hypertrophied glands

A 25 year old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months' duration. When obtaining the patient's history, which of the following findings is most likely to cause this condition?

Cigarette smoke

a 25 year old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months' duration. Which of the following is the most significant concern for the nurse to monitor in this patient?

recurrent pulmonary infections

a 53 year old male with a 20 year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. When the nurse is asked what causes this, what is the nurse's best response? Changes in his lungs are caused by:

alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

individuals with a recent diagnosis of emphysema should be assessed for which most common presenting factor?

dyspnea

a 60 year old female with a 25 year history of heavy smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. She has an increased anterior-posterior chest diameter. The nurse attributes this finding to:

air trapping

A patient asks what causes pneumonia. How should the nurse reply? Pneumonia is caused by:

viral or bacterial infections

When the nurse observes a diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia, the patient generally acquires the pneumonia:

during hospitalization

a 30 year old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. While planning interactions, the nurse realizes the patient can transmit this disease through:

airborne droplets

a 70 year old female is in the hospital for pelvic fracture. She develops pulmonary thromboembolism. The nurse realizes this embolus is composed of:

blood clot

Which of the following patients is at highest risk for developing pulmonary embolism (PE)?

72 year old male who is recovering from hip replacement surgery in the hospital

An 80 year old female is in the hospital for a bone fracture. While there she develops a large, nonlethal pulmonary embolus. Which of the following is a direct result of the obstruction to pulmonary blood flow?

pulmonary hypertension

When a patient has a massive pulmonary embolism (PE), what complications will the nurse monitor for?

shock and death

A 50 year old male is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Which of the following symptoms most likely occurred before treatment?

chest pain and shortness of breath

A 60 year old male undergoes surgery for a bone fracture. Which of the following nursing measures would be most effective for preventing pulmonary embolism in this patient?

prevent deep vein thrombosis formation

A 50 year old male with a 30 year history of smoking was diagnosed with lung cancer. He was previously exposed to air pollution, abestos, and radiation at his job. Which of the following should the nurse realize had the greatest impact on the development of his cancer?

Cigarette smoke

A 60 year old male with a 40 year history of smoking presents with chest pain, cough, sputum production and pneumonia. Tests reveal widespread metastatic cancer, and the primary care provider plans radiation therapy. Which of the following is the most likely type of cancer to be documented on the chart?

non-small cell carcinoma

which of the following assessment findings would be expected in pulmonary embolism?

chest pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, hemoptysis.

Which of the following are characteristic of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension?

fatigue, dyspnea, jugular vein distention

A nurse is monitoring a patient for pulmonary hypertension. Which mean pulmonary artery pressure reading will indicate to the nurse that pulmonary hypertension is occurring? Pulmonary artery pressure above ___ mmHg?

25

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