Civics Chapter 13 I-III and Chapter 14 IV

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a machine that removes seeds from short-staple cotton

cotton gin

large-scale farmers who held more than 20 slaves

planters

an area throughout the South and as far west as Texas that was known for high cotton production.

cotton belt

crop brokers

factors

one of the most productive iron works in the nation

Tredegar Iron Works

owners of small farms

yeomen

stories with morals

folktales

emotional Christian songs that blended African and European music

spirituals

the most violent slave revolt in the United States occured in 1831

Nat Turner's Rebellion

a complete end to slavery

abolition

Its members wanted immeidate emacipation and racial equality for African Americans.

American Anti-Slavery Society

the organization that was not an actual railroad but was a network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitives, or escaped slaves.

Underground Railroad

The inventions of the ____ revived the economy of the South.

cotton gin

The cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew ____.

little else

Some people encouraged ____ to focus on other crops and industrices.

southerners

The invention of the cotton gin made the South a ____ economy and increased the need for ____.

one-crop; slave labor

Southern society and culture consisted of ____ main groups.

four

Free African Americans in the SOuth faced a great deal of ____.

discrimination

SOuthern society ccentered around ____.

agriculture.

Slaves worked at a variety of jobs on ____.

plantations

Life under slavery was ____ and ____.

difficult; dehumanizing

Slave culture centered around ____, ____, and ____.

family; community; religion

Slave ____ led to stricter slave codes in many states.

uprisings

The slave system in the South produced harsh ____ and occasional ____.

living conditions; rebellions

Americans from a variety of backgrounds actively ____ slavery.

opposed

____ organized the Underground Railroad to help enslaved Africans escape.

Abolitionists

Despite efforts of abolitionists, many Americans remained ____ to ending slavery.

opposed

In the mid-1800s, debate over slavery ___ as abolitionists organzied to challenge slavery in the United States.

increased

How did the cotton gin make processing cotton easier?

The cotton gin used a hand-cranked cylinder with wire teeth to pull cotton fibers from the seeds. It got the seeds out of the cotton faster.

Why had slavery been on the decline before the invention of the cotton gin? How did slavery change as a result of the cotton gin?

Slavery had been on the decline before the invention of the cotton gin because before cotton could be spun into thread for weaving into cloth, the seeds had to be removed from the cotton fibers. The cotton gin made cotton so profitable that southern farmers abandoned other crops in favor of growing cotton.

How might the rise of cotton production and slavery affect Southern society?

A rise in slavery and cotton products lifted up the Southern economy. It became a status symbol to hold slaves. If you could get 20 slaves you were considered a major plantation owners.

What areas made up the cotton belt?

The removal of Native Americans opened up land, while the development of cotton plants helped spread cotton production throughout the South as far west as Texas.

Do you think the South should have paid more attention to its industrial growth? Why?

Yes. If the upbringing is only a little while, it's not worth it. If the soil is not right, it may not be very helpful.

What other crops and industries were encouraged in the South?

Growing rice, sweet potatoes, wheat, sugarcane, and corn was encouraged in the South.

Why were some southern leaders worried about the South's reliance on cotton?

They wanted southerners to try a variety of cash crops and investments. It can ruin the environment.

What was the largest social group in the South? How did its members make a living?

The largest social group in the South was the yeomens. They made their living by working long days at various tasks.

In what ways were southern cities similar to northern cities?

City governments built public water systems and provided well-maintained streets. Public education was available in some places. Wealthy resident occasionally gave large sums of money to charities.

Which southern social class do you think had the most difficult life? Why?

I think the poorest of the white southerners had the most difficult life because they had no consistent jobs they had to often do odd jobs for money.

What jobs were available to free African Americans in the South?

Free African Americans in the South worked as paid laborers on plantations or plantations, or as a skilled artisan.

Why did many white southerners fear free African Americans?

White Southerners feared free African Americans because they thought the African Americans didn't have the ability to take care of themselves, and they used this belief to justify the institution of slavery.

Why do you think that discrimination against free African Americans was harsher in the South than in the North?

Yes. There were probably more slaves in the South to work on plantations.

What different types of work were done by slaves on plantations?

Slaves worked as butlers, cooks, nurses, blacksmiths, or carpenters.

Do you think that skilled slaves had advantages over other slaves? Why or why not?

Yes. They were allowed to sell their services and to keep some of the money.

What were the living conditions like for most slaves?

Most slaves were housed in dirty-floor cabins with new furnishing and often leaky roofs.

In what different ways did slaveholders encourage obedience from their slaves?

Some planters offered more food or better living conditions to encourage slaves' obedience. However, most slaveholders used punishment instead.

What was the purpose of folktales?

The purpose of folktales were stories with a moral that teach lesions about how to survive under slavery.

How did slaves try to maintain a sense of community?

Family was the most important aspect of slave communities, and slaves feared separation more than they feared punishment. Religion was very important - they never worked on Sundays.

What was the outcome of Nat Turner's Rebellion?

States strengthened their slave codes. The new codes placed stricter control on the slave population.

What do you think were some reasons why slaves rebelled?

I think slaves rebelled because of the amount of physical labor, living conditions, and lack of food.

What contributions did William Lloyd Garrison make to the abolition movement?

William Lloyd Garrison published an abolitionist newspaper and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.

In what ways did contributions from African American aid the struggle for abolition?

Frederick Douglas escaped slavery and had many speaking tours in the United States and Europe. He published a newspaper and wrote autobiographies that showed the injustices of slavery. Sojourner Truth claimed that God had called her to travel through the United States and preach the truth about slavery and women's rights.

How did the Underground Railroad work?

The Underground Railroad was a network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitives, or escaped slaves.

Why did Harriet Tubman first become involved with the Underground Railroad?

I think Harriet Tubman became involved with the Underground Railroad because she knew what slaves were going through, because she was a former slave herself. She swore that she would return and lead her whole family to freedom in the north.

Do you think the Underground Railroad was a success? Why or why not?

Yes. It freed many slaves and gave them a new chance at life.

. What action did Congress take to block abolitionists?

To block abolitionists, Congress made a rule that forbade members of Congress from discussing petitions.

Why did some Americans oppose equality for African Americans?

Some Americans might oppose equality for African Americans because they have people to work for them for little to no charge.

How might the debate over slavery lead to conflict in the future?

Civil War

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