Psychology - Learning Chapter

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unconditioned response

response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs

unconditioned stimulus

stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond a certain way

conditioned stimulus

is paired with an unconditional stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone

conditioned response

after conditioning, the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented

learning

the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior

classical conditioning

the tupe of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different stimulus

operant conditioning

type of learning selected in which behaviors are emitted in the presence of specific stimuli to earn rewards or avoid punishment

inner conflict

freud believed that phobias represent this...

superstitions

whenever a reinforver follows something we do closely we tend to repeat the action, even if the reinforcement is not produced directly by what we have done

avoidance training

using threats of punishment

shaping

reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior

extinction

decrease in the strength or frequency of a learned response

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance of an extinguished response after a passage of time without further training

cognitive learning

leaning that depends on mental processes that are not observable, impossible to measure

latent learning

learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change, is stored and used at a later time

observational learning

learning by observing other people

reinforcer

follows behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated

punisher

follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated

positive reinforcer

adds something rewarding to a situation

negative reinforcer

subtracts something unpleasant from the environment

primary reinforcer

stimulus that is satisfying, a neccessity, and requires no learning

secondary reinforcer

reinforcing power through experience

Edward Thorndike

experimented with operant learning with cats

B.F. Skinner

performed experiment with birds testing superstitution, operant learning

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