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final review

The anatomical part of the sternum identified in the figure above is the:

sternum

Which projection and body position will demonstrate the sternum through the heart?

PA oblique, RAO

Which breathing techniques can be used when performing an oblique projection of the sternum?

2)expiration
3) slow, shallow breathing

What is the central-ray angulation for an AP or PA oblique projection of the chest?

0 degrees

The central-ray angle for the PA oblique projection of the sternum is:

perpendicular

The central-ray angulation for a PA projection of the sternoclavicular joint is:

0 degrees

The part of the sternum identified on the figure above is the:

xiphoid

Where is the center of the IR positioned for a PA projection of sternoclavicular joints?

third thoracic vertebra

What is the respiration phase for the PA projection of the upper ribs?

full inspiration

What is the recommended SID necessary to blur the posterior ribs on a PA oblique projection of the sternum?

30 inches

Which of the following are required to produce a chest radiograph using a decubitus position?

2) patient in the recumbant position
3) horizontal x-ray beam

What is the central ray angle for the Lindblom method (lordotic position) of demonstrating the pulmonary apices?

0 degrees

What is the respiration phase for the AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices?

inspiration

For PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally:

the side farther from the IR

Which side is the optimal respiration phase for a PA or lateral chest radiograph?

full inspiration-second breath

Which side of the patient's chest is placed against the IR for a ventral or dorsal decubitus lateral projection?

affected side

How is the IR positioned for a lateral sternum?

top of IR is 1 1/2 inches above the jugular notch

What is the recommended SID for a PA chest radiograph?

72 inches

How is the central ray positioned for an x-ray projection done with the patient placed in a decubitus positon?

horizontal

Which of the following form the bony thorax?

1. sternum
2. 12 pairs of ribs
3. 12 thoracic vertebrae

How many degrees of body rotation are required for routine AP or PA oblique chest radiography?

45 degrees

Which plane must be accurately parallel with the IR to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a lateral chest radiograph?

midsaggital plane

Why is the left lateral chest position the most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest?

patient's heart is closer to the IR

What is the most optimal position of the patient for examinations of the heart and lungs?

upright

The aspiration of a foreign particle in the lung would be termed:

aspiration pneumonia

Which of the following will be observed on a supine AP chest radiograph?

1. clavicles projected higher
2. lung fields appear shorter

Which of the following is the recommended breathing technique that should be used when examining the ribs that lie at the level of the diaphragm?

two deep expirations and hold

When performing the PA oblique projection (body rotation technique) of the sternoclavicular articulations, which of the joints would be demonstrated?

the joint closest to the IR

Where should the patient's hands be positioned for an upright lateral sternum?

locked behind the back

Which of the following is the recommended position for optimal demonstration of the upper anterior ribs?

2. standing
3. seated upright

The right lung is about how much shorter then the left?

1 inch

What is the central-ray angle for a PA chest radiograph?

perpendicular

If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate fluid in the pleural cavity, which side much the patient lie on?

affected side

Which of the following must be clearly demonstrated on x-ray projections using a decubitus position?

1. entire lung fields
2. patients arms not visible on image
3. identification to indicate decubitus

How far should the patient stand in front of the grid device before leaning backward for the lordotic position?

1 foot

Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a supine AP chest radiograph?

1 1/2 inches to 2 inches above the relaxed shoulders

What is the patient position for a lateral projection done in the dorsal decubitus position?

supine

The thoracic viscera consists of the:

1. lungs
2. mediastinum

Which ribs are demonstrated on an AP oblique projection?

side closest to the IR

For AP oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally:

the side closes to the IR

What is the recommended SID for a supine AP chest radiograph?

72 inches

How much should the body be rotated for a PA oblique projection of the sternum?

15 to 20 degrees

Where are the hands placed for a PA projection of the chest?

back of the hands on the hips

How much is the body rotated for the PA oblique projection of the sternoclavicular articulation (body rotation technique)?

10 to 15 degrees

If the patient cannot be placed in the lordotic position for radiography of the pulmonary apices, what is the CR angle that can be used to project the clavicles above the apices?

15 to 20 degrees cephalad

Which of the following is the essential projection and body position for demonstration of the sternum?

PA oblique, RAO

How is the patient's head positioned for a PA projection of one sternoclavicular joint?

turn the head to face the affected side

The costophrenic angle is a part of the:

lungs

Each lung is divided into specific segments called:

lobes

The centra-ray angle for a lateral sternum is:

perpendicular

Which of the following are advantages of using an SID of 72 inches for chest radiography?

1. decreased magnification of the heart
2. sharper outlines of the delicate lung structures

Which of the following projections would be used to demonstrate the sternum on a trauma patient who must remain relatively supine?

AP projection, LPO

The part of the lung that extends above the clavicle is termed the:

apex

Where is the bottom of the IR positioned for an AP projection of the ribs (below the diaphragm)?

at the iliac crest

How far above the top of the shoulders should the IR be positioned for any decubitus position of the chest?

1 1/2 to 2 inches above the shoulders

How far above the shoulders should the IR be positioned for PA and lateral chest radiographs?

1 1/2 to 2 inches

The central ray for a PA projection of the upper ribs is:

0 degrees

Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a PA oblique projection of the lungs?

1 1/2 to 2 inches above the vertebral prominens

What is recommended on how long should the patient remain in position before making the exposure when performing a projection int he lateral or dorsal decubitus position?

5 minutes

The respiratory system proper consists of the:

1. larynx
2. trachea and bronchi
3. both lungs

The space between the two pleural walls is called the:

pleural cavity

The presence of gas or air int he pleural cavity is termed:

pneumothorax

What is the respiration phase for AP or lateral projections of the chest performed in the decubitus position?

full inspiration

Where is the IR centered for a PA oblique sternum?

Seventh thoracic vertebra

How many ribs should be visible above the diaphragm on a PA chest radiograph?

10

Where is the central ray directed for the lateral projection of the cerviothoracic region(simmers technique)?

C7-T1

Where is the central ray directed for an "open mouth" AP projection of the atlas and axis?

perpendicular through the open mouth

How many vertebrae make up the vertebral column?

33

How many thoracic vertebrae have a small concave facet on the transverse process, for articulation with the tubercle of a rib?

10

The central-ray angle for an AP axial cervical vertebrae is:

15 to 20 degrees cehphalad

The part identified in the figure above is the:

pedicle

The intervertebral formina of the thoracic spine form an angle of how many degrees with the midsagittal plane?

90 degrees

The SID for a lateral cervical spine must be a minimum of how many inches?

60 to 72 inches

The swimmer's technique demonstrates the cervicothoracic region in which projection?

lateral

Which intervertebral foramina are demonstrated on an AP axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?

those farthest from the IR

The first cervical vertebra is called the:

atlas

The respiration phase for a lateral cervical spine is:

full expiration

Which of the following describes the Fuchs method?

AP, dens

Where is the center of the IR positioned for the AP projection of the dens, Fuchs method?

tip of the mastoid process

Which of the following methods is used to demonstrate the cericothoracic region in the lateral projection?

2. Swimmers technique

An abnormal increase in the convexity of the thoracic spine is termed:

kyphosis

Where is the central ray centered for a hyperflexion or hyperextension lateral cervical spine?

fourth cervical vertebra

What is the recommended SID for the AP axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?

60 to 72 inches

Which intervertebral foramina and pedicles are demonstrated on an AP axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?

those farthest from the IR

Where should the superior edge of the IR be placed for an AP projection of the thoracic vertebrae?

to 2 inches above the shoulders

How much is the body rotated for an AP axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?

45 degrees

Where should the arms be places for a lateral projection of the thoracic spine?

at right angles to the long axis of the body

What is the central ray angle for an Ap axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?

15 to 20 degrees cephalad

Ideally, the cathode end of an xray tube should be positioned to take advantage of the "heel effect" of the tube. Where should the cathode be placed for an AP thoracic spine?

toward the feet

Where is the IR centered for the lateral projection of the cervicothoracic region(swimmers technique)?

at the C7-T1 interspace

Where is the IR centered for a lateral cervical spine?

fourth cervical vertebra

The swimmer's technique lateral projection is performed to demonstrate the:

cervicothoracic region vertebrae

Which of the following should be performed to place the back in contact with the table for an AP thoracic spine?

1. flex the hips
2. flex the knees

How are small weights applied to the arms for the lateral projection of the cervical spine?

affixed to the wrists

What is the central ray angle for an AP thoracic spine?

0 Degrees

The respiration phase for the "open mouth" AP projection of the atlas and axis is:

softly phonate "ah" during the exposure

How much is the body rotated for a PA axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?

45 degrees

The zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic spine form an angle of how many degrees with the midsagittal plane?

70 to 75 degrees

Which projection of the cervical spine will demonstrate the lower five zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine?

1. lateral
2. lateral in hyperflexion
3. lateral in hyperextension

The phase of respiration for a hyperflexion or hyperextension lateral cervical spine is:

suspended respiration

The "vertebra prominens" is the name given to the:

seventh cervical vertebra

Which of the following methods is used to demonstrate the dens within the foramen magnum?

Fuchs

Where is the central ray directed for the AP axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?

fourth cervical vertebra

Which of the following are functions of the vertebral column?

1. supports the trunk
2. protects the spinal cord
3. supports the skull superiorly

Which of the following is placed perpendicular to the tabletop for the AP axial cervical vertebrae?

a line drawn from the lower edge of the upper incisors to the tip of the mastoid process

The Grandy method is a(n):

lateral projection of the cervical vertebrae

Where is the IR centered fro an AP axial cervical spine?

fourth cervical vertebra

Where should the center of the IR be positioned for the "open mouth" AP projection of the atlas and axis?

second cervical vertebra

How is the thorax centered for a lateral thoracic spine?

center the posterior half to the center of the grid

What is the central-ray angulation for an AP axial projection of the cervical spine on a trauma patient?

15 to 20 degrees cephalad

The intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine are demonstrated on which of the following projections?

2. AP axial oblique
3. PA axial oblique

If a lead rubber sheet is not placed on the table when performing a lateral projection of the thoracic spine, the image may be:

underexposed

Which of the following lines must be perpendicular to the IR for the AP "open mouth" atlas and axis?

a line drawn from the lower edge of the upper incisors to the tip of the mastoid process

The short, thick processes that project posteriorly on each side of a vertebral body are called the:

pedicles

Patients may arrive in the emergency department with trauma to the neck. Which projection of the cervical spine is performed first, and then reviewed by the physician, before proceeded with other projections?

dorsal decubitus (cross-table) lateral

the vertebral foramen of the first cervical vertebra contains the:

1. dens
3. spinal cord

For which projection is the patient instructed to softly phonate "ah" during the exposure?

AP "open mouth" atlas and axis

Which of the following breathing techniques can be used for a lateral projection of the thoracic vertebrae?

2. suspended respiration
3. quiet breathing

Where is the IR centered for the hyperflexion or hyperextension lateral projection of the cervical spine?

fourth cervical vertebra

For the cervicothoracic region lateral projection (swimmers technique), the recommended position of the humeral head farthest from the IR is:

move posteriorly

Where is the central ray directed for a lateral cervical spine?

fourth cervical vertebra

What is the central ray angulation for the AP projection of the dens, Fuchs method?

0 degrees

The xray projection demonstrated in the figure above is the:

AP, open mouth, atlas, and axis

Where is the central ray directed for a lateral thoracic spine?

level of T7

A fracture at the anterior arch of C2 due to hyperextension is termed a:

hangman's fracture

The intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine open:

45 degrees anteriorly and 15 degrees inferiorly

The zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine are clearly demonstrated on which projection?

lateral

The recommended SID for a dorsal decubitus (cross-table) lateral projection of the cervical spine on a trauma patient is:

60 to 72 inches

The second cervical vertebra is called the:

axis

The intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine are clearly demonstrated on which projection?

lateral

Which of the following contrast mediums are used for examinations of the gastrointestinal tract?

1. air
2. barium sulfate
3. water-soluble iodinated solution

The patient "prep" for a morning stomach examination is:

food and fluid are withheld after midnight

What is the recommended general body position for a radiographic series of the esophagus?

recumbent

Which of the following are essential oblique projections of the stomach and duodenum?

1. AP projection, LPO
2. PA projection, RAO

A specific radiographic examination of the biliary ducts is termed:

cholangiography

The part of the stomach identified in the figure below is the:

pyloric antrum

Food and fluid should be withheld for how many hours before a stomach examination?

8

Which of the following are prime considerations in producing an optimal radiograph of the abdomen?

2. explain the breathing procedure to the patient
3. do not start the exposure for 1 to 2 seconds after suspension of respiration

Which of the following planes is positioned to the center of the grid for the lateral projection of the stomach and duodenum?

a plane passing midway between the midcoronal plane and the anterior surface of the abdomen

The routinely used methods of examining the stomach include:

2. single contrast
3. double contrast

Which of the following planes is centered to the grid for the PA oblique projection of the stomach and the duodenum?

a longitudinal plane midway between the vertebrae and the lateral border of the elevated side

A PA projection of the stomach and duodenum can be performed using a 24 x 30 cm IR. Which of the following describes the plane that is centered to the grid for this projection?

a sagittal plane passing halfway between the midline and the lateral border of the abdomen

For which of the following projections of the abdomen is the x-ray beam placed in the horizontal position?

2. PA, upright
3. AP, lateral decubitus

The central ray angulation for an AP abdominal radiograph is:

0 degrees

A properly exposed abdominal radiography will exhibit the:

1. psoas muscles
2. lower border of the liver
3. transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae

What is the respiration phase for an AP or PA abdominal radiograph done in the upright position?

expiration

Which of the following are components of the alimentary canal?

1. mouth and pharynx
2. stomach and intestine

The area idtentified in the figure below is the:

cardiac antrum

The most commonly performed abdominal examination is referred to as a(n):

KUB

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