rod shaped cell structures that direct the activities of a cell and passes on the traits of a cell to new cells
division of the cytoplasm, usually at the end of nuclear division.
gel-like substance in which all cellular components outside the nucleus are immersed.
one of two cells resulting from the division of a single cell.
a cell that contains two of each type of chromosome, such as a human somatic cell.
The loose and uncoiled form of DNA seen during interphase
first stage in interphase, during which cellular growth and development takes place
third stage of interphase during which organelle replication and protein synthesis takes place
reproductive cells; sperm and egg cells in animals.
the information which is passed from one cellular generation to the next (encoded in DNA in humans).
A member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry
the portion of the cell cycle where the cell is not dividing; includes G1, S and G2 stages.
the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the replicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the cell
process of cellular division in which the daughter cells are genetically identical to themselves and to the parent cell.
organelle in the center of the cell which contains the chromosomes.
the first stage of mitosis /meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope
chromosomes which have undergone DNA replication and contain two sister chromatids.
second stage of interphase ; period of DNA replication.
two identical copies of a parent chromosome which are attached to one another at the centromere.
any cell in the body that is not a germ cell (reproductive cell).
protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
A group of cells derived from a single ancestor.
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the poles
specialized organelles that facilitate cell division
the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
contractile ring of microfilaments in animal cell where the cell membrane is divided
the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
treatment using x-rays to destroy cancerous tissue
the use of chemical agents to treat or control some types of cancer (destroys cells or prevents them from dividing)
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
a process of asexual reproduction in which a new individual develops from an outgrowh of the parent
single, specialized cells that are units of reproduction that can be formed asexually or sexually (ex. bread mould)
the ability for an organism to regrow and replace a body part
cell division that occurs in sex cells in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
The formation of haploid gametes (sperm or ova) via meiosis.
the meiotic process that results in the formation of eggs
the meiotic process that results in the formation of sperm cells