Final Exam

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Without question, the most important contribution to the developing field of organizational behavior came out of the ________________.

Hawthorne Studies

The Hawthorne Studies were initially devised to study ______________.

the effect of illumination levels on employee productivity

What scientist is most closely associated with the Hawthorne Studies?

Mayo

One outcome of the Hawthorne Studies could be described by which of the following statements?

Social norms or group standards are the key determinants of individual work behavior.

If you believe that you control your own destiny, then your personality would be described as having a(n) ______________.

internal locus of control

Employees who have a high internal locus of control _______________.

exhibit more satisfaction with their jobs

An individual who is high in ___________ is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

Machiavellianism

Machiavellianism

A person who believes that "the ends justify the means" would describe a person who has a high level of what personality trait?

If you like yourself, then your personality would be described as having a(n) _____________.

high self-esteem

People with high self-esteem _______________.

choose more unconventional jobs

Self-monitoring

______________ is a personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors.

A person who can adapt and adjust behavior to external factors has _______________.

high self-monitoring

A manager who takes very little time to make a decision probably has _______________.

high risktaking

Which of the following is true concerning personality types and national cultures?

You would find many people with an internal locus of control in the United States and Canada.

Perception

______________ is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions to give meaning to the environment.

What are the three factors that act to shape and sometimes distort perception?

the perceiver, the target, and the situation

Attribution

______________ theory explains how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior.

If everyone who's faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows __________.

consensus

If a person who is always late for work is late once again and blames it on a train, coworkers would probably attribute that person's lateness to _____________.

the individual

In attribution theory, an employee who underestimates the influence of external factors and overestimates the influence of internal factors is said to have _____________.

fundamental attribution error

Self-serving bias

_______________ is the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for personal failure on external factors such as luck.

Theory X

___________ assumes that employees have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility.

Theory Y assumes that people inherently _____________.

want to work and can exercise self-direction

Theory X assumed that _______________ needs dominated individuals, and Theory Y assumed that _______________ needs dominated

lower-order; higher-order

According to Hertzberg, what characteristic is associated with job dissatisfaction?

status

According to Herzberg, when ___________ are adequate, people won't be dissatisfied, but they also will not be satisfied.

hygiene factors

According to Herzberg, in order to provide employees with job satisfaction, managers should concentrate on _____________.

motivator factors (moderate)

What type of job scheduling option would allow two different employees to share one 40-hour-a-week systems analyst position?

job sharing

The linking by computer and modem of workers at home with coworkers and management at an office is termed ____________.

telecommuting

What is a potential disadvantage of telecommuting?

unsatisfied social needs

Flexible

______________ work hours are where employees work a certain number of hours per week, but are free, within limits, to vary the hours of work.

In _____________, employees work fewer days, but more hours per day.

a compressed workweek

To maximize motivation among today's diverse workforce, managers need to think in terms of ________________.

flexibility

In a study comparing job-preference outcomes among graduate students in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Singapore, what rated the highest among them all?

growth

Ethnocentric views concentrate on their _____________.

home country

Parochialism is ____________.

a tendency to view the world through a single perspective

For U.S. businesses to have successful global management, which of the following statements provides the best advice?

Develop an understanding of multicultural differences.

Which of the following is the least favorable attitude for an American manager who wishes to be successful in international business?

ethnocentric

Managers with a(n) ___________ attitude view every foreign operation as different and hard to understand.

polycentric

Successful global management requires an attitude that is best described as _____________ .

geocentric

A(n) __________ attitude is characterized by parochialism.

ethnocentric

The geocentric attitude is a _____________ view.

world-oriented

Successful _____________ management requires enhanced sensitivity to differences in national customs and practices.

global

A personality measure of a person's convictions is _______________.

ego strength

Locus of control

______________ is a personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe they control their own fate.

A manager who believes that "she worked hard and met the productivity goals despite bad weather" is displaying what individual characteristic?

internal locus of control

Group behavior is ______________.

not merely the sum total of the behaviors of all the individuals in the group

Which of the following statements about groups is true?

Groups can be either formal or informal.

Formal groups

__________ are work groups established by the organization that have designated work assignments and specific tasks.

Which of the following would be considered a formal group?

bringing people from various functions to solve a business dilemma

Which of the following formal groups are essentially independent groups, which, in addition to their regular job, take on tasks such as hiring, performance evaluations, and so forth?

self-managed teams

Which of the following is not a type of formal group?

business unit alliances

Group development is ______________.

a dynamic process

The forming stage of group development consists of _______________.

two phases

The __________ stage is complete when members begin to think of themselves as part of a group.

forming

When the __________ stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group and agreement on the group's direction.

storming

Norming occurs when ___________.

close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness

The __________ stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior.

norming

In the __________ stage, high levels of task performance are not the group's top priority any longer.

adjourning

Behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit is called ______________.

a role

50. An individual confronted by different role expectations has just encountered role _____________.

conflict

The acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the group's members are referred to as _______________.

norms

A new commercial bank employee who notices stares from other officers because he does not wear conservative work attire is experiencing what aspect of groups?

norms

Work group norms are _____________.

very powerful in influencing an individual's performance

The findings of Asch's experiment utilizing lines of different lengths relate to _______________.

workplace conformity

Self-managed

Teams that operate without a manager and are responsible for complete work process or segment

Laissez-faire

Giving group freedom to make decisions and complete work

Mission

A statement of purpose of the organization

Cash cows

low growth, high market share

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