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12th edition

D

Which of the following is not a feature of malnutrition in pregnancy?
Answer

It increases the risk for delivery of a low-birth-weight infant

Around the time of conception, it increases the risk for birth defects

It increases the risk for adverse effects on the child and, if the child is a female, on her children

Around the time of conception, it prevents the uterus from developing fully but spares the placenta

B

A feature of heavy caffeine use in human pregnancy is that it may
Answer

worsen edema.

increase the risk of infant death.

increase the risk of birth defects.

increase the risk of stillborn infants.

B

According to the recommended food intake for pregnancy, which of the following food groups is the only one that is provided in sufficient amounts by this menu?
Answer

Milk

Meats

Vegetables

Bread/cereal

D

Approximately what percentage of newly pregnant women develop gestational diabetes?
Answer

1

2

3

4

C

A less severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome is known by all of the following terms except
Answer

prenatal alcohol exposure.

fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

fetal subdevelopment syndrome.

alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder.

D

You are working as a nutrition consultant in a women's health clinic and have been advising patients to make sure they consume about 400 micrograms of folate every day. One patient is aware that folate helps prevent birth defects but she isn't sure why she should take it if she is not pregnant. Which of the following is the most appropriate reply?
Answer

The folate supplementation prevents pernicious anemia, which increases the risk of spina bifida

The folate supplementation is needed to ensure a large store that can be utilized by the growing fetus

As long as supplementation begins the day pregnancy is confirmed, there is no risk of defects

The neural tube develops early on in pregnancy, oftentimes before the woman realizes she is pregnant

C

What is the recommended increase in daily energy intake, in kcal, for the third trimester of pregnancy?
Answer

200

300

450

540

B

The most common forms of neural tube defects are spina bifida and
Answer

macrosomia.

anencephaly.

preeclampsia.

cesarean section.

A

An infant born with incomplete closure of the spinal cord has
Answer

spina bifida.

macrosomia.

anencephaly.

neural tube seizure.

A

Which of the following is one of the recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?
Answer

Eat many small meals

Drink fluids only with meals

Exercise within 30 minutes after eating

Lie down within 15 minutes after eating

B

Which of the following statements describes an association between nutrient intake and lactation?
Answer

Milk production is increased by higher fluid intake

Ingestion of garlic may lead to an off-flavor of the milk

Inadequate protein intake lowers the protein concentration of the milk

The energy RDA for milk production calls for an additional 1000 kcalories per day

A

What is the minimum recommended weight gain for the obese pregnant woman?
Answer

11 lbs

18 lbs

25 lbs

35 lbs

C

What organ functions to prepare the mother's breasts for lactation?
Answer

Uterus

Ovaries

Placenta

Amniotic sac

B

What is the percentage increase in the folate RDA during pregnancy?
Answer

25

50

75

100

A

You work with a primary care physician to help newly pregnant women plan their diets. What vital information is needed to formulate a plan of weight gain?
Answer

Weight and height

Physical activity level

Number of previous pregnancies

Weight gain preference of the mother

A

As a means to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in newborn infants, grain products are fortified with what nutrient?
Answer

Folate

Thiamine

Vitamin C

Vitamin B12

B

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for an underweight woman?
Answer

15-25

28-40

42-50

55-62

B

How many weeks is the usual duration of a full-term pregnancy?
Answer

32-36

38-42

43-45

46-49

B

What is gestational diabetes?
Answer

A severe form of type 1 diabetes in newborns

Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy

Reactive hypoglycemia expressed during the third trimester of pregnancy

A temporary loss of insulin secretion during the first trimester of pregnancy

A

What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status?
Answer

Infant's birthweight

Mother's weight before pregnancy

Mother's weight gain during pregnancy

Mother's nutrition status prior to pregnancy

D

Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of
Answer

4 weeks, called quarters.

9 weeks, called quartiles.

4 months, called semesters.

3 months, called trimesters.

C

Which of the following is not a characteristic of preeclampsia?
Answer

It often diminishes fetal growth

It is a disorder of genetic predisposition

It almost always progresses slowly to eclampsia

It is much more prevalent in black women than white women

D

What is the risk of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome for a woman who is 40 years old compared with a 20 year old?
Answer

One-half as much

About the same

25 times higher

100 times higher

B

Which of the following is a feature of heavy metal intake and pregnancy?
Answer

Mercury, but not lead, can easily cross the placenta

The adverse effects of lead can be reduced by liberal intakes of calcium

Pregnant women are advised to limit consumption of shark and swordfish to no more than once per week

Pregnant women are advised to avoid shellfish around the critical period of brain development but may resume normal intake thereafter

D

All of the following are features of nonfood cravings during pregnancy except
Answer

they are especially common in African-Americans.

they are often associated with iron-deficiency anemia.

they commonly include consumption of freezer frost and clay.

they are known to lead to premature delivery and to low-birth-weight infants.

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of vegetarian diets during pregnancy or lactation?
Answer

Vegan diets require supplements of selenium, zinc, and manganese

Breast milk from vegetarian women is lower in protein but higher in fiber

It is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation

The increase in appetite during pregnancy allows a vegan pregnant woman to easily meet or exceed her energy requirements

D

Which of the following is a function of prolactin?
Answer

It reverses the effects of certain mutagens

It reverses the effects of certain teratogens

It acts on mammary glands to stimulate milk release

It acts on mammary glands to promote milk production

A

A craving for non-food substances is known as
Answer

pica.

bulimia.

toxemia.

hyperemesis.

B

Which of the following is a characteristic of body weight changes associated with pregnancy?
Answer

Weight gain is generally steady throughout pregnancy for normal-weight women

Most women are unable to lose all of the weight that was gained during pregnancy

Sudden, large weight gain in pregnancy may signal the development of hypotension

Overweight pregnant women should gain as much weight as underweight pregnant women

B

Among the following, which is not known to represent a significant risk factor for a pregnancy being affected by a neural tube defect?
Answer

Maternal obesity

Age at time of pregnancy

Low socioeconomic status

Exposure to a hot-tub during pregnancy

A

What is the most likely reason for a pregnant woman to crave pickles?
Answer

A change in hormones

A hypoglycemic episode

A physiologic need for fluid

A physiologic need for sodium

B

Preeclampsia typically develops during the
Answer

first half of pregnancy.

second half of pregnancy.

first month after delivery.

first trimester of pregnancy.

B

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?
Answer

The AI increases by over 100%

Intestinal absorption increases substantially

Supplements are required for most women due to the increased needs

Transfer of calcium from maternal stores to the fetus increases rapidly at the beginning of the second trimester and falls during the last trimester

B

Which of the following nutrients taken as a prenatal supplement has been found to be associated with a lower incidence of neural tube defects?
Answer

Iron

Folate

Calcium

Cobalamin

C

A newborn infant at full gestational age has an average length of
Answer

6 inches.

12 inches.

20 inches.

3 feet.

C

All of the following are normal body responses to pregnancy except
Answer

breast size increases.

blood volume increases.

body water level decreases.

joint flexibility increases.

D

The common problems of pregnancy include all of the following except
Answer

nausea.

heartburn.

constipation.

low blood pressure.

D

Over the course of the entire pregnancy, approximately how much extra energy, in kcal, does the average pregnant woman need to consume?
Answer

10,500

26,000

49,000

72,000

C

The component of weight gain during pregnancy that is similar to the average weight of the infant at birth is the
Answer

placenta.

amniotic sac fluid.

maternal fat stores.

uterus and supporting muscles.

A

At what stage of pregnancy does an embryo show a beating heart and a complete central nervous system?
Answer

8 weeks

12 weeks

20 weeks

29 weeks

A

Jane is visiting with her doctor during her 2nd trimester of pregnancy and has just revealed her strange cravings. The doctor declared that Jane is experiencing pica, which is causing her intense craving for
Answer

dirt.

garlic.

pickles.

pepperoni.

B

In obese pregnant women, the risk for neural tube defects in the infant is believed to result from
Answer

insufficient exercise.

poor glycemic control.

insufficient folate intake.

higher prevalence of cesarean section.

D

To help alleviate pregnancy-related nausea, all of the following actions are recommended except
Answer

eat dry toast or dry crackers.

avoid milk when feeling nauseated.

avoid orange juice when feeling nauseated.

eat large, infrequent meals so as to limit contact time with food.

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of gestational diabetes?
Answer

It predicts risk of diabetes for the infant

It occurs in over one-half of normal weight women

It leads to adult-onset diabetes in about a third of the women

It occurs more often in women with a history of having premature births

A

According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?
Answer

1 drink/day

2 drinks/day

4 drinks/day

7 drinks/week

D

Studies report that folate supplements for women may lower the incidence of neural tube defects of infants when the vitamin is taken during the
Answer

last trimester of pregnancy.

second trimester of pregnancy.

second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy.

A

Which of the following is a characteristic of neural tube defects?
Answer

They are found in about 1,000 newborns in the United States each year

They include common disorders such as liver and kidney disease

They can be prevented by supplementation of the pregnant woman's diet with vitamin B12

They can be prevented by supplementation of the pregnant woman's diet with vitamins A and E

B

In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time is usually an indication of
Answer

excessive fat deposition.

excessive fluid retention.

abnormal fetal development.

normal pregnancy only if it occurs during the second trimester.

D

Which of the following is a feature of the WIC program?
Answer

The number of children in the program is capped at 2 million

It is strictly remedial and available chiefly to women living in the inner city

It offers assistance to all at-risk pregnant women regardless of economic means

It saves an estimated $3 in medical costs in the first two months after birth for every dollar spent

C

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman?
Answer

10-18

19-24

25-35

38-44

C

Tobacco use in pregnancy increases the risk for all of the following except
Answer

SIDS.

fetal death.

macrosomia.

vaginal bleeding.

D

Penny is a new mom and, on the advice of her doctor, has been eating an extra whole-wheat bagel with strawberry jelly every night in addition to her nutrient-dense diet. Why did Penny receive this advice?
Answer

Bagels are a way of getting more kcalories in the diet

Bagels provide the extra protein lactating mothers need for lactose production

Babies prefer the strawberry jelly in the mother's diet as it alters the taste of the breast milk

These bagels provide the extra carbohydrates and fiber lactating mothers need for lactose production

D

What connects the umbilical cord to the fetus?
Answer

Uterus

Placenta

Caesareas

Belly button

A

All of the following are characteristics of nutrition and pregnancy except
Answer

underweight has little, if any, effect on fertility.

overweight men have low sperm counts that reduce fertility.

excess body fat in women interferes with the regular cycles of menstruation.

the woman's nutritional status is more important than the man's for the developing fetus.

B

Which of the following is a characteristic of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?
Answer

Calcium intakes usually meet the recommendations

The AI for calcium is the same as in nonpregnancy

Calcium absorption efficiency is the same as in nonpregnancy

Calcification of the fetal skeleton begins during the 14th week of pregnancy

C

It is still acceptable for a mother to breastfeed even if she has
Answer

abused alcohol.

a drug addiction.

an ordinary cold.

a communicable disease.

D

What is WIC?
Answer

A serious neural tube defect

The World Intervention and Conception program of the United Nations

An environmental contaminant that may interfere with breast milk production

A food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants

B

In what period of pregnancy would most damage from alcohol consumption occur?
Answer

Before conception

First trimester

Second trimester

Third trimester

A

What is the term given to the developing infant from the eighth week after conception until birth?
Answer

Fetus

Ovum

Zygote

Embryo

A

Which of the following is the standard classification for a very-low-birthweight infant?
Answer

3 1/2 lbs or less

4 1/2 lbs or lesS

5 1/2 lbs or less

6 1/2 lbs or less

A

Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal smoking and breast milk production?
Answer

The milk produced by mothers who smoke contains nicotine

Cigarette smoking reduces the quality but not the quantity of breast milk

Infants of breastfeeding mothers who smoke gain excessive weight consisting mainly of abdominal adipose tissue

The smell and flavors of breast milk from mothers who smoke do not alter volume consumed until the infant reaches 3 months of age

D

Which of the following describes the findings from studies of lactating women who exercised intensely compared with sedentary lactating women?
Answer

They had similar energy intakes

Their milk was more nutrient-dense

They had a slightly greater amount of body fat

Their milk contained more lactate, which altered the milk's taste

C

All of the following are normal body responses to pregnancy except
Answer

breast size increases.

blood volume increases.

body water level decreases.

joint flexibility increases.

A

Which of the following is an effect of alcohol intake in the mother who breastfeeds?
Answer

It alters the flavor

It stimulates lactation

It passes into the breast milk and stimulates the infant's acceptance

It first appears in the breast milk approximately 12 hours after ingestion

A

For the normal-weight woman who becomes pregnant, what is the ideal weekly weight gain from the start of the second trimester and onward?
Answer

1 lb

2 lbs

3 lbs

4 lbs

B

All of the following are features of gestational diabetes except
Answer

Asian ancestry is a risk factor.

infant birthweights are typically low.

it usually develops during the second half of pregnancy.

the most common consequences include labor and delivery complications.

A

Which of the following is not a characteristic of caffeine use in physical activity?
Answer

It slows depletion of muscle glycogen

It often induces stomach upset and diarrhea

It acts as a physiological and psychological stimulant

It is permitted in moderation by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)

C

The optimal carbohydrate concentration of sports drinks for the endurance athlete is
Answer

1-2%.

5%.

6-8%.

15-20%.

C

The components of fitness include all of the following except
Answer

strength.

flexibility.

bone fragility.

cardiovascular endurance.

A

A person engaging in exercise at a moderate level should walk at a speed of one mile per
Answer

quarter hour.

half hour.

hour.

hour and a half.

C

Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
Answer

High-fat diet

High-protein diet

High-carbohydrate diet

Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements

A

Mary is 15 years old and has just joined her high school swim team. After the first three months of training and competing, her coach sends the team for mandatory physical examinations and routine blood tests. When Mary got home, she told her mom that she has sports anemia. Why shouldn't Mary begin taking iron supplements as a way to treat this condition?
Answer

The anemia is not correctible by extra iron intake

The anemia is most likely the result of folate deficiency

The iron will interfere with creatine phosphate synthesis

The iron will not be absorbed well because of the intense work-outs

B

What percentage of U.S. adults lives a completely sedentary lifestyle?
Answer

5

20

45

60

B

Why should fiber-rich foods be avoided in an athlete's pregame meal?
Answer

The fiber delays absorption of fat

The fiber interferes with glycolysis

The meal crowds out more energy-dense foods

The fiber retains water in the GI tract that would otherwise be absorbed

A

In the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be
Answer

fluids.

protein.

glycogen.

electrolytes.

C

Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
Answer

tripling protein intake.

taking hormones duplicating those of puberty.

putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.

relying on protein for muscle fuel and decreasing intake of carbohydrates.

D

In training to run in your state marathon this summer, you want to determine how much fluid to drink during training sessions. Your weight at the beginning of every training session is 150 pounds. At the end of every training session you weigh 146 pounds. How many cups of fluid are necessary replenish these losses?
Answer

2

4

6

8

A

Which of the following describes an effect of caffeine use in the athlete?
Answer

It stimulates fatty acid release

It enhances performance for almost all athletes

It raises blood pH to counteract the buildup of lactate

It promotes absorption of electrolytes from the intestinal tract

D

Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?
Answer

Neither involves mandatory body movement

Neither involves enhanced energy expenditure

Physical activity, but not exercise, involves muscle contractions

Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned

C

All of the following are acceptable definitions of the term fitness except
Answer

the ability of the body to resist stress.

the ability of the body to perform physical activity without undue stress.

the ability to maintain a normal body composition and remain free of injury while performing strenuous physical tasks.

the ability to meet normal physical and emotional demands while maintaining an energy reserve sufficient to overcome an immediate challenge.

B

Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in athletes?
Answer

Iron in sweat represents the major route of iron loss from the body

Iron losses occur from accelerated destruction of fragile, older blood cells

Iron deficiency affects a higher percentage of male athletes than female athletes

Sports anemia is successfully treated by increasing dietary iron to levels 2-3 times the RDA

C

Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
Answer

High-fat diet

High-protein diet

High-carbohydrate diet

Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements

B

Which of the following is a feature of physical activity recommendations?
Answer

The minimum daily amount of exercise for health's sake is 10 minutes

The same level of effectiveness can be achieved by dividing the activity in shorter sessions throughout the day

To maintain a healthy body weight, a minimum of 75 minutes per day of vigorous (intensive) exercise is necessary

Walking each day as the only physical activity is not enough to meet the guidelines for quantity and quality of physical activity

C

Chris has been competing all day in a track competition and is now ready for the 100-meter dash. Although he feels tired, which of the following high-energy muscle compounds can he rely on for quick energy in this event?
Answer

Fat

Lactate

Creatine phosphate

Adenosine diphosphate

C

In the average person, the amount of stored glycogen represents how many kcal?
Answer

500

1000

2000

4000

C

What is the chief adverse effect from drinking a carbonated beverage before engaging in athletic activity?
Answer

The carbonic acid inhibits fluid absorption

The bubbles induce chronic burping and so inhibit performance

The bubbles induce feelings of fullness quickly and so limit fluid intake

The carbonic acid promotes gastroesophageal reflux leading to upper GI discomfort

A

Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium in athletes?
Answer

There is a direct correlation between heat-induced cramps and the amount of sodium lost in the sweat

Sports drinks that contain sodium polymers can more quickly replace sodium losses from severe sweating

The sodium lost through heavy sweating can be easily replaced by consuming any of the common sports drinks

Hyponatremia is more likely to develop when water intake during intense exercise in hot weather is withheld and salted snacks are consumed

C

What should be the composition of the last (pregame) meal before an athletic event?
Answer

High-protein, providing 30 kcal per kg body weight

Vegetable and fruit juices, providing 100 to 200 kcal

High-carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300 to 800 kcal

High-fiber, providing 200 to 300 kcal and liberal amounts of fluid, which is beneficially retained by the fiber in the GI tract

B

Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
Answer

15 minutes.

60 minutes.

1 hours.

3 hours.

C

Your friend Bob, who engages in endurance exercise throughout the week, is concerned that his protein intake is inadequate and asks what type of protein supplement he should take. You assure him that
Answer

all high-quality protein drinks are equivalent despite the price differences.

the extra protein he needs should be high-quality lean sources of poultry and fish.

he most likely already gets more protein from his regular diet than he needs, even for endurance activity.

no sports authority organizations recommend protein intakes greater than the RDA for endurance athletes.

B

During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
Answer

Removal of lactic acid

Transfer of energy to make ATP

Removal of nitrogen waste products

Transfer of phosphate to muscle fiber

B

About how many kcal are supplied by 8 oz of the typical sports drink?
Answer

5-10

50-100

250-500

500-1,000

C

What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
Answer

Fats

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Chromium and iron

D

If a person's maximum heart rate is 220 beats/min, what is the safe maximum heart rate during vigorous exercise?
Answer

110

142

165

198

B

Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?
Answer

It requires prolonged treatment

It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment

It responds to treatment only with high doses of iron

It is due primarily to increased iron loss via perspiration

C

Which of the following is a feature of caffeine use in physical activity?
Answer

Caffeine is widely abused by endurance athletes because it cannot be detected by blood or urine tests

Caffeine enhances performance by stimulating glycogen breakdown and increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells

College and national competitions prohibit the use of caffeine in amounts greater than that present in 5 cups of coffee when consumed within a few hours before testing

The usual side effects of caffeine use such as irritability, headaches, and diarrhea are delayed or diminished in endurance athletes because of their high metabolic rates during competition

C

Which of the following is a feature of creatine supplementation in athletes?
Answer

It may enhance performance of endurance athletes

Long-term use adversely affects liver and kidney function

It may enhance performance of weight lifters and sprinters

It induces short-term weight loss consisting primarily of lean tissue

C

During a physical activity, what hormone signals the fat cells to begin releasing their fatty acids?
Answer

Leptin

Glucagon

Epinephrine

Neuropeptide-Y

D

How can water loss from the body be quickly estimated at the end of a physical activity?
Answer

Multiply body weight (kg) by 1% to determine liters of water loss

Multiply duration of activity (min) by body weight (kg) to determine mL of water loss

Subtract air temperature (°F) from body weight (lbs) and then multiply by 5 to determine mL of water loss

Take the difference in body weight (lbs) before and after the event and multiply by 2 to determine cups of water loss

B

For optimal performance, the athlete's precompetition meal may include all of the following except
Answer

pasta.

beans.

breads.

potatoes.

B

What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?
Answer

1/4 liter

1/2 liter

1 liter

2 liters

C

Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least
Answer

10 minutes/day.

20 minutes/day.

2.5 hours/week.

5 hours/week.

D

Which of the following is a feature of chromium in physical performance?
Answer

Chromium from ginseng shows high bioavailability

Athletes may obtain sufficient chromium from green leafy vegetables and legumes

Supplements of chromium chloride enhance free fatty acid release but inhibit fatty acid oxidation

Most recent studies on chromium picolinate supplementation show no favorable effects on strength or lean body mass

A

Which of the following best exemplifies an activity that promotes flexibility?
Answer

Yoga

Pilates

Weight lifting

Jumping rope

B

What nutrient becomes depleted most rapidly during physical exercise?
Answer

Iron

Water

Glucose

Glycogen

C

When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?
Answer

Water

Protein

Glucose

Fatty acids

B

The duration of exercise warm-up and cool-down periods should be
Answer

1-2 minutes each.

5-10 minutes each.

15 minutes each.

2 minutes warm-up and 4 minutes cool-down.

A

All of the following are characteristics of heat stroke except
Answer

it is rarely fatal.

it is due, in part, to dehydration.

it is caused by heat buildup in the body.

its symptoms include headache, nausea, and mental changes.

B

A person engaged in physically active work in hot, humid weather and who wears a rubber suit to promote weight loss is at high risk of experiencing
Answer

ketosis.

heat stroke.

hypothermia.

overhydration.

C

The recommended amount of dietary carbohydrate (g/kg body weight) for an athlete training for a marathon is approximately
Answer

2.

4.

8.

12.

D

In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
Answer

low number of repetitions with heavy weight.

low number of repetitions with lighter weight.

high number of repetitions with heavy weight.

high number of repetitions with lighter weight.

D

In the immediate postexercise period, what type of diet enhances muscle protein synthesis?
Answer

Protein alone

Carbohydrate alone

Carbohydrate plus fat

Carbohydrate plus protein

A

In weight training, muscle strength can best be emphasized by combining a
Answer

low number of repetitions with heavy weight.

low number of repetitions with lighter weight.

high number of repetitions with heavy weight.

high number of repetitions with lighter weight.

B

For most physically active people, all of the following are valid reasons for consuming sports drinks except
Answer

they may provide a psychological advantage.

they are better than water at preventing sodium depletion.

they contain a source of fuel, which may enhance performance in endurance events.

they have a good taste, which encourages their consumption and ensures adequate hydration.

A

Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition in physical activity?
Answer

Protein is not a major fuel for physical activity

Body protein synthesis rates increase about 10% during physical activity

Protein contributes 30% more to total fuel used for physical activity than during rest

Body protein synthesis rates decline about 30% for several hours after physical activity

C

For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?
Answer

5-10%

10-15%

20-35%

35-45%

D

What type of meal and time of its ingestion promote the most rapid repletion of glycogen stores after physical activity?
Answer

Mixed meal taken within 4 hours

Mixed meal taken within 30 minutes

High-carbohydrate meal taken within 2 hours

High-carbohydrate meal taken within 15 minutes

C

Which of the following is a feature of creatine supplementation in athletes?
Answer

It may enhance performance of endurance athletes

Long-term use adversely affects liver and kidney function

It may enhance performance of weight lifters and sprinters

It induces short-term weight loss consisting primarily of lean tissue

C

Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate?
Answer

"Sweat" replacers

Salt tablets and tap water

Diluted juice or cool water

Water warmed to body temperature

D

All of the following are categorized as fitness strength activities except
Answer

pilates.

pull-ups.

push-ups.

kickboxing.

A

Which of the following describes an effect of caffeine use in the athlete?
Answer

It stimulates fatty acid release

It enhances performance for almost all athletes

It raises blood pH to counteract the buildup of lactate

It promotes absorption of electrolytes from the intestinal tract

A

The first sign of dehydration is typically
Answer

fatigue.

dizziness.

intense thirst.

intense sweating.

A

What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?
Answer

Iron

Calcium

Thiamin

Vitamin C

C

Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?
Answer

Salt tablets

Protein powders

Nutrient-dense foods

Vitamin and mineral supplements

B

Pat has gained about 20 pounds in the past 5 years and has come to you for help with a diet and exercise regimen. In order to promote optimal fat loss through exercise, in which of the following activities should Pat participate?
Answer

Wearing an electrical impulse belt throughout the day

Low- to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise like hiking

High-intensity aerobic activity like cycling, swimming, or running

Very high-intensity anaerobic activity like mile run at maximal speed

A

What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
Answer

Fat

Protein

Glycogen

Blood glucose

D

What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
Answer

Low-protein

High-protein

Low-carbohydrate

High-carbohydrate

B

Which of the following is a role for diet in physical activity?
Answer

Diets high in fat lead to a fall in amino acid utilization for fuel

Diets lacking in carbohydrates lead to increased amino acid utilization for fuel

Deficiencies of vitamins have no effect on performance provided that all other nutrients are adequate

Deficiencies of minerals have no effect on performance provided that all other nutrients are adequate

Nutrition

The science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they conain, and their actions within the body

Diet

The foods and beverages a person eats and drinks

Personal Preference

Choosing food due to taste or flavors. Ex. Sugar and Salt

Habit

Choosing foods without making decisions which can be comforting.

Ethnic Heritage

Among the strongest influences on food choices.

Social Interaction

Choosing food that allows you to enjoy companionship

Availability, Convenience, and Economy

Choosing foods that are quick to prepare or cheap

Positive and Negative Associations

Choosing food based emotions that you have experienced with them.

Emotions

Choosing foods when you are happy, depressed or upset.

Values

Choosing foods based on your beliefs (Religious, Political, or Environmental).

Body Weight and Image

Choosing foods based on how they will affect your vanity

Nutrition and Health Benefits

Choosing food based on how they will affect your life.

60%

Percent of water in the body

13-21%

% of Fat in Mens bodies

23-31%

% of fat in Womens bodies

Inorganic Compounds

Nutrients that do not contain Carbon

Minerals

Simplest of Nutrients, Inorganic

Water

Second most simple nutrient. Contains two elements, Inorganic

Water and Minerals

The two inorganic nutrients

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, vitamins

4 Nutrients that are Organic

Carbon

Element found in all living things.

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