Anatomy of the Digestive System

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Subdivisions of the mucosa layer

Epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae

Major functions of mucosa

Secretion, absorption and protection

Subdivisions of the submucosa layer

None

Major functions of submucosa

Nutrition and protection

Subdivisions of the muscularis externa layer

Longitudinal muscle and circular muscle

Major functions of muscularis external

Regulator of gastrointestinal mobility

Subdivisions of the serosa (adventitia) layer

Epithelium and connective tissue

Major functions of serosa (adventitia)

Reduce friction and anchor & protect

The tubelike digestive system canal that extends from the mouth to the anus is known as the

Alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract

How is the muscularis externa of the stomach modified?

Besides the usual circular and longitudinal layers of smooth muscle, it also an innermost layer of smooth muscle that runs obliquely.

How does the modification relate to the function of the stomach?

Allows stomach not only to mix, churn and move food along the tract (circular/longitudinal fiber function) but also to pummel the food, physically breaking it down into smaller fragements and to ram food into the small intenstine (oblique fiber function)

What transition in epithelial exist at the gastroesophageal junction?

Squamous cells in the esophagus to columnar cell in the gastric mucosa.

How do the epithelia of these two organs relate to their specific function?

Simple columnar for gastric is absorption & stratified squamous provides protection in esophagus

Differentiate between the colon and the large intestine

Large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Colon is part of the large intestine and is divided into ascending, descending, and sigmoid colon.

Structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall

Mesentry

Fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption

Villi

Large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine

Peyer's patches

Deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine

Circular folds

Regions that break down foodstuffs mechanically

Appendix and oral cavity

Mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth and initiates swallowing

Tongue

Conduit for both air and food

Pharynx

3 structures continous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum

Greater omentum, lesser omentum, and mesentary

The "gullet"; no digestive/absorptive function

Esophagus

Folds of the gastric mucosa

Rugae

Sacculations of the large intestine

Haustra

Projections of the plasma membrane of a mucosal epithelial cell

Microvilli

Valve at the junction of the small and large intestines

Ileocecal valve

Primary region of food and water absorption

Small intestine

Membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth

Frenulum

Absorbs water and forms feces

Large intestine

Area between the teeth and lips/cheeks

Vestibule

Wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum

Appendix

Initiates protein digestion

Stomach

Structure attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach

Lesser omentum

Organ distal to the stomach

Small intestine

Valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum

Pyloric valve

Posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity

Soft palate

Location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass

Small intestine

Serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall

Parietal peritoneum

Principal site for the synthesis of vitamin K by microrganisms

Large intestine

Region containing two spinchters through which feces are expelled from the body

Anus

Bone-supported anterosuperiour boundary of the oral cavity

Hard palate

Visible portion of the tooth in situ

Clinical crown

Material covering the tooth root

Cementum

Hardest substance in the body

Enamel

Attaches the tooth to bone and surrounding alveolar structures

Peridontal ligament

Portion of the tooth embeded in bone

Root

Forms the major portion of tooth structure; similar to bone

Dentin

Produces the dentin

Odontoblast

Site of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics of the tooth

Pulp

Entire portion of the tooth covered with enamel

Anatomical crown

In human the number of deciduous teeth is _____; the number of permanent teeth is _____.

20; 32

What's the dental formula for permanent teeth? Explain what it means.

2,1,2,3 / 2,1,2,3 x 2 = 32 ; It means 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars on the upper teeth & 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars on the lower teeth MULTIPLY by 2.

What is the dental formular for decidous teeth?

2,1,0,2 / 2,1,0,2 x 2 = 20

What teeth are the "wisdom teeth"?

The third molars

Produces mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine

Duodenal glands

Produces a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth

Salivary glands

Produces a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted in the duodenum

Pancreas

Produces bile that it secretes into the the duedenum via the bile duct

Liver

Produces HCl and pepsinogen

Gastric glands

Found in the mucosa of the small intestine; produces intenstinal juice

Intestinal crypts

Which of the salivary glands produces a secretion that is mainly serous?

Parotid gland

What is the role of the gallbladder?

Stores bile

Name 3 structures always found in the portal regions of the liver

Hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile duct

Where would you find the Kupffer cells of the liver? What's its function?

Sinusoid walls; remove debris such as bacteria or won-out blood cells from the blood.

Why is the liver so dark red in the living animal?

High amount of blood that circulates through the liver

What are the two major populations of secretory cells in the pancreas? Which serves the digestive process?

Islets and acinar cells; acinar cells

Compare the appearance of tongue papullae in cats and humans.

Filiform papillae, especially at the anterior end of the tongue, is sharp, bristly and more abundant in the cat.

Compare the number of lobes of the liver in cat and humans.

Cat - 5 lobes; Human- 4 lobes

Does the cat have a uvula?

No

Does the cat have an appendix?

No

What's the adult dental formula in cats?

3 incicors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 1 molar (Upper teeth) / 3 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 1 molar (Lower teeth) X2 = 30 teeth total

How do the villi differ in the duodenum and the ileum?

The vilia are large and leaflike in the duodenum since it's the intestinal site of most active absorption. In the ilem, the villi gradually narrow and shorten along the length of the small intestine.

Name the 3 sections of the small intestine.

Duodenum, jejenum, and ileum

There are 4 regions of the stomach. Name the superiomost region.

Cardiac region

Name the valve where the small intestine empties into the large intestine

Ileocecal valve

Name one retroperitoneal organ

Pancreas, kidneys

I am part of the GI tract. When undigested food is rushed through me, I cannot properly absorb water, resulting in diarrhea. Name this organ.

Large intestines

Name the glands that produce HCl and pepsinogen

Gastric glands

Name one function of the mucosa in the lumen of the alimentary canal.

Protection

Name 2 structures that increase the absorptive surface area within the digestive tract

Villi and microvilli

What is the function of the incisors?

Bite down on food

Name the mass of processed food leaving the stomach

Chyme

What causes the yellowing of tissues in jaundice?

Too much bile produced in the liver; block duct causes bile to spill into tissues.

What is the function of the gallbladder?

Store and concentrate bile salts

What is the function of the bicarbonate ions in the pancreas?

Neutralize acidity of chyme entering small intestines

Name the special phagocytic cells that line the liver sinusoids, and work to remove debris from blood as it flows past.

Kupffer cells

I am part of your teeth, I have no cells. I am very brittle, but extemely hard. I cannot be healed or replaced. What am I?

Enamel

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