Chapter 15-Therapy

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Psychotherapy

Techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life.

Psychoanalysis

Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences, into consciousness. Also Freud's theoretical school of thought emphasizing unconscious process.

Free association

In psychoanalysis, reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its contents.

Dream analysis

In psychoanalysis, interpreting the underlying true meaning of dreams to reveal unconscious processes.

Resistance

In psychoanalysis, the person's inability tor unwillingness to discuss or reveal certain memories, thoughts, motives, or experiences.

Transference

In psychoanalysis, the patient may displace unconscious feelings about a significant person in his or her life into the therapist.

Interpretation

A psychoanalyst's explaination of a patient's free associations, dreams, resistance, and transference; more generally, any statement by a therapist that presents a patient's problem in a new way.

Manifest

The surface of a dream.

Latant

The true underlying meaning of a dream.

Psychodynamic therapy

A briefer, more directive, and more modern form of psychoanalysis that focuses on conscious processes and current problems.

Criticisms of psychoanalysis

Limited applicability and lack of scientific credibility.

Intrapersonal therapy

A form of psychotherapy that focuses almost exclusively on the client's current relationships and issues that arise from those relationships.

Insight therapies

Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic therapy.

Cognitive therapy

Therapy that treats problem behaviors and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs.

Self talk

Internal dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they interpret events.

Cognitive restructuring

Process in cognitive therapy to change destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations.

Cognitive behavior therapy

Combines changing faulty thinking with changing faulty behaviors.

Rational emotive behavior therapy

Ellis's congnitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs.

Activating Event

Individual is blocked from desired goal.

Irrational beliefs

Individual interprets the frustration in an irrational, erroneous manner.

Emotional consequences

Individual experiences negative feelings, which reinforce the original irrational beliefs.

Disputing irrational beliefs

Individual challenges irrational beliefs, which changes negative emotions.

Albert Ellis

The godfather of cognitive behavior therapy, suggests irrational beliefs are the primary culprit in problem emotions and behaviors.

Aaron Beck

Developed another cognitive behavior therapy that focused on identifying thinking patterns in depression prone people.

Selective perception

Focusing selectively on negative events while ignoring positive events. "How come I'm the only one alone at this party?"

Overgeneralization

Drawing negative conclusions about one's self worth. Believing you are worthless because you failed an exam.

Magnification

Exaggerating the importance of undesirable events or personal shortcomings, and seeing them as catastrophic and unchangeable.

All or nothing thinking

Everything is either all good or all bad, success or failure, right or wrong. "If I don't get straight As, I'll never get a job."

Criticisms of cognitive therapy

Ignore unconscious processes, overemphasizing rationality, and minimizing the importance of the client's past.

Humanistic therapy

Therapy that focuses on removing obstacles that block personal growth and potential.

Client centered therapy

Roger's therapy emphasizing the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive; techniques include empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening.

Empathy

In Rogerian terms, an insightful awareness and ability to share another's inner experience.

Unconditional positive regard

Roger's term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached.

Genuineness

In Rogerian terms, authenticity or congruence; the awareness of one's true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly with others.

Active listening

Listening with total attention to what another is saying; involves reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying what the person says and means.

Carl Rogers

Best known humanistic therapist who developed an approach that encourages people to actualize their potential and relate to others in genuine ways.

Criticisms of humanistic therapies

Self actualization and self awareness are difficult to test scientifically, research has shown mized results.

Group therapy

A number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals.

Self help group

Leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem, as in Alcoholics Anonymous.

Advantages of group therapy

Less expense, group support, insight and information, and behavior rehearsal or role play.

Family therapy

A therapy in which the primary aim is to change maladaptive family interaction patterns.

Behavior therapy

Group of techniques based on learning priciples used to change maladaptive behaviors. (Not underlying cause)

Systematic desensitization

A gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear by working through a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed.

Aversion therapy

Pairing a stimulus with a maladaptive behavior.

Hierarchy

Ranked listing of 10 or so anxiety-arousing images. Client works up the list to stop anxiety by using relaxation techniques.

Aversion therapy for alcoholism

A nausea producing drug is mixed with alcoholic beverages to create an aversion for drinking.

Target behavior

A behavior to be aquired.

Shaping

Being rewarded for successive approximations of the target behavior, and is an operant technique.

Role playing

Behavior rehearsal, or practicing behaviors and getting feedback and reinforcement from clinician.

Modeling therapy

Watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors.

Participant modeling

When therapy combines live modeling with direct and gradual practice.

Generalizability

Behavior therapists work to gradually shape clients toward rewards that are typical of life outside the clinical setting.

Ethics

Behavior therapy increases a person's freedom by making controls overt and teaching people to change behavior.

Biomedical therapy

Using biological interventions (drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery) to treat psychological disorders.

Psychopharmacology

The study of drug effects on mind and behavior.

Antianxiety drugs

Medications used to produce relaxation, reduce anxiety, and decrease overarousal in the brain. Also known as anxiolytics. (Benzodiazepines)

Antipsychotic drugs

Medications used to diminish or eliminate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, and other symptoms of psychosis; also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers.(Phenothiazines, Butyrophenones)

Mood stabilizer drugs

Medications used to treat the combination of manic episodes and depression characteristic of bipolar disorders. (Such as lithium).

Antidepressant drugs

Medications used to treat depression, some anxiety disorders, and certain eating disorders (such as bulimia). (MAOIs, SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics)

Psychosurgery

Operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment.

Lobotomy

Outmoded medical procedure for mental disorders, which involved cutting nurve pathways between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus.

Tardive Dyskinesia

Movement disorder involving facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible side effect of long term use of antipsychotic medications.

Electroconvulsive therapy

A moderate electrical current is passed through the brain ans between two electrodes places on the outside of the head.

rTMS (Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation)

Biomedical treatment involving repeated pulses of magnetic energy being passed through the brain.

Five goals of therapy

Attempts to change disturbed thoughts, disturbed emotions, disturbed behaviors, intrapersonal and life situation difficulties, and biomedical disturbances.

Eclectic approach

Combining techniques from various theories to find the most appropriate treatment.

Six types of professionals

Clinical psychologists, counseling psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, psychiatric social workers, and school psychologists.

Cultural similarities

Naming the problem, qualities of the therapists, therapist credibility, familiar framework, techniques that bring relief, and a special time and place.

Cultural differences

In some areas, emphasis is on self, independence and control, where other areas the focus is on interdependence and accepting the realities of life.

Five concerns for women

Rates of diagnosis of mental disorders, stress of poverty, stress of aging, violence against women, and stress of multiple roles.

Involuntary commitment

This happens when a person is believed to be a danger to themselves or others, in serious need of treatment, or there is no reasonable, less restrictive alternative.

Deinstitutionalization

Discharging patients from mental hospitals as soon as possible and discouraging admissions.

How to find good therapy

Shop around, and consult your doctors or counselors for referrals, or call hospital for emergencies.

Five techniques for psychoanalysis

Free association, dream analysis, resistance, transference, and interpretation.

Ellis

This person started rational emotive behavior therapy.

Beck

This person supported cognitive therapy.

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