supermatural theories view
abnormality as a result of divine intervention, curse, demonic possession, and personal sin.
see abnormality as similar to physical disease; a breakdown of some systems of the body.
see mental illness as a result of some trauma.
What were Plato's beliefs?
plato believed that mental disorders were caused by the rational mind being overcome by impulse, passion, or appetite.
What happened to Insane People
"insane" people were often confined to their homes, had thier property taken away, and were not allowed to marry.
Describe Ancient China
perdominantly a natural or biological approach to abnormality.
What is the concept of Yin and Yang?
belief that emotions were a result of "vital air" flowing over certain organs.
What was the inquesition?
the inquisition was originated as a way to identify and punish religious heretics, but "witches" and "satanists" were also arrested.
What year the act for regulating madhouses passed?
act for regulating madhouses passed in 1774.
Who was Emil Kraeplin?
he developed earl classification system for mental disorders that is the basis for today's system
What is American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(Fourth Edition)?
a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
client is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Iiteral translation "split mind"
Antisocial Personality Disorder
exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. example- stal from grandmother.
Why do people suffer mental disorders?
people suffer mental disorder when their culture recognizes that their mental condition is causing them harm. Unusual is not abonormal thereare good deviances, Being " much brighter than average"
tendency to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting ither the situation or the person's disposition.
effects of attribution
happily married couple attribute unkind remarks as spouse having a bad day. unhappily married couple attribute unkind remarks as spouse being a hostile person.
often based on our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
cognitive Dissonance theory
we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts(cognitions) are inconsistent.
"start small and build"
According to Milgram's Study how many people complied to shock another person?
milgram found that 63% of participants complied to the commands to shock another person.
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others.
tendency for people in group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
loss of self-awareness and self restraint occurring in group situation that foster arousal and anonymity.
milgram's study taught us that given the choice between morality and obedience obedience typically won!
what are gender roles?
a set expected behaviors for males and for females.
tendency to favor one's own group.
the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal.
what do twin studies do?
twins studies support genetic influence on aggression.
we cheer, kill, and die for our groups.
how does weather effect aggression?
hot weather increase aggression.
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses or integrates techniques from various forms of therapy (also called psychotherapy integration)
freud believed the patient's free associtions, resistance, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist's interpretation of them-released previously repressedfeelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight use has rapidly decreased in recent years.
blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
What do critics of Psychoanalysis say?
Interpretations are hard to refute because they cannot be proven or disproven, it psychoanalysis takes alot of time and it can be very expensive
What is the Humanistic Approach?
Help people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance
How is the Humanistic approach different from the Psychoanalysis approach?
the humanstic approach has clients, not patients
What is active listening?
empathic listening in which the listener echos, restates and clarifies
What are the 3 steps to active listening?
Paraphrasing, invite clarification and reflect feelings
What is counter conditioning?
a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; it is based on classical conditioning and includes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning
What is Systematic Desensitation?
a type of counterconditining that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
What is family therapy?
it treats the family as a system
What are the trhee types of group therapy?
Family therapy, Couples therapy and Self-Help group therapy
What is Meta-analysis
a procedure for statistaclly combining the results of many different research studies
Does Therapy work?
according to Meta-analysis patients have a higher rate of positive outcomes after seeking treatment
What is Electroconvulsive Therapy?
therapy for severly depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
What is another term for "Shock Therapy?"