Both plants & animals need mitochondria to
converts light energy into chemical energy.
What statement describes the function of a chloroplast?
What must materials pass through to enter or leave a cell?
Eukaryotic cells move their organelles via
Plant cells have _____________ that connect the cytoplasm of one cell with that of another
maintaining cell shape.
In bacterial cells and plant cells, cell walls function in
What is found in both plant cells and animal cells?
The part of the enzyme into which the substrate fits is called the ________.
solar energy - chloroplast - mitochondria
Which of the following shows the flow of energy at the cellular level through the biosphere?
A white blood cell surrounds and engulfs a worn-out red blood cell, forming a vesicle around the red blood cell. This process is called ________.
When a cell is in a solution where the concentration of solute is the same in the cell as in the solution, the solution is called ________.
Simple diffusion across a plasma membrane is called ______________ because it does not require energy from the cell.
(physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work
Amount of energy needed to raise temperature 1 gram of water 1 degree C
What does the Sun allow plants to reproduce?
Food energy is measured in what?
A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
A process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment. Transports to outside of cell
"cell eating"process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take hem into the cell
In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.
RED BLOOD CELLS
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
A very small blood cell derived from the fragmented cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. Platelets participate in coagulation, wound healing, and inflammation
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
CUBE SHAPED CELL IN EPITHELIAL TISSUE (DUCTS AND PASSAGEWAYS FOR KIDNEYS)
epithelial tissues composed of tall, elongated cells
Cover body surfaces and lines body cavities. Functions: secretion, filtration, absorption of molecules, protection from pathogens, excretion
A body tissue that carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body. Composed of specialized tissues called neurons.
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
A lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical support; a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usually occurs in bundles.
Extend from cell body and enlarge surface area to receive signals from the axons of other dendrites.
Innermost compartment of the mitochondrion
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
Chemical Digestion is made possible with the help of _______, catalysts in the body that help speed up the "Reactions of Life"
(n.) a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change
A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
red blood cells
A cell in the blood of vertebrates that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues. In mammals, the red blood cell is disk-shaped and biconcave, contains hemoglobin, and lacks a nucleus. Also called erythrocyte, red cell, red corpuscle.
prokaryotic and eukaryotic
two types of cells
An organism whose cells do not have an enclosed nucleus, such as bacteria., Small, simple, no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, single loop of DNA (nucleosome), no cellulose, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall (made of carbs), somtimes have cilia or flagella (movement).
Larger, complex, with nucleus, membrane bound organelles, DNA tightly wrapped around histone proteins in chromosomes, cellulose in plant cell walls.
- secrete substances that are components of extracellular fibers The most common cell types are
This is the most widespread and abundant type of tissue in the human body.
(biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms
• Do Prokaryotic cells have a nucleus?
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work
Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
states that "in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state."
• The least usable form of energy
Energy of activation
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
The part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs.
- net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic
Tonicity: 3 types
(of a solution) having a higher osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
(of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
C6H12O6 + 6O2 yields 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
initiates photosynthesis, most receptive to blue and red wavelengths. least receptive to green
electrons from photosystem II replace electrons that left photosystem I; photosystem II gets replacements from water
An organic molecule that is a necessary participant in some enzymatic reactions; helps catalysis by donating or accepting electrons or functional groups; e.g., a vitamin, ATP, NAD+.
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
Molecule for energy
Citric Acid Cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Catabolism of glucose or other monosaccharides to pyruvate and 2 molecules of ATP in the absence of oxygen or 34 molecules of ATP in the presence of oxygen.
# of ATP molecules produced in the steps of Cellular respiration
Electron Transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.