How are dogs infected with Leishmania infantum?
Flagellated promastigotes develop within the Phlebotomus (sand fly) - promastigotes engulfed by macrophages and disseminated throughout the body causing granulomatous infections
What are 2 disease states of Leishmaniasis?
Asymptomatic and Chronic disease (weeks - months to develop clinical signs)
What clinical signs are seen with the chronic states of Leishmaniasis?
Sebborheic skin, weight loss, abdominal distension, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, Polyarthritis, uveitis, PU/PD
List lab abnormalities of Leishmaniasis
Hyperproteinemia (inc gamma globulins), Anemia of chronic disease, Thrombocytopenia, Renal failure, Supporative polyarthritis
How would you diagnose Leishmaniasis?
Demonstrate organism in macrophages, free blood aspirates Serology/PCR Culture
How do you treat Leishmaniasis?
Allopurinal with Antimony; Liposomal amphotericin B; Insect & vector control
What are the target organs of disease for Leishmaniasis?
Renal, HL, MS, Skin
What agent causes canine borreliosis?
4 genomic groups of B. burgdorferi sensu lato
How is borreliosis transmitted in the dog?
Ixodes scapularis and pacificus attach for at least 48 hrs -- multiplication of spirochetes in the skin -- dissemination/replication through tissues and blood
What clinical signs are seen with infection of borrelia?
Early: fever, anorexia, arthropathy, lymphadenopathy Acute progressive renal failure: proteinuria, glomerulonephritis Cardiac signs are rare: bradycardia and heart block
How do you diagnose borrelia infection in the dog?
Clinical signs: fever, lameness 1+ joints, acute onset Positive C6 test and ELISA Quantitative test Western blot and IFA
How would you treat a Lyme infection?
Antibiotics for 30d: Amoxicillin, Doxy, Cefitriaxone, Azithromycin Anti-inflammatories for arthropathy -careful with NSAIDs Renal failure tx: Diet, ACE inhibitors, PO4 binder Immunosuppressive therapy to decrease immune-complexes
How can you prevent lyme infections?
Tick repellants and patrols Vaccination (2-3 in series, booster yearly)
What are the target systems of a lyme infection?
MS, Renal, Cardiac, GI
What agent causes canine hepatozoonosis?
H. americanum and H. canis
How is hepatozoonosis transmitted?
Amblomma maculatum ingests organism during a blood meal from an infected host and develops oocyts -- Dog ingests the infected tick -- Sporozoites released into the dogs tissues causing a pyogranulomatous infection
What disease states are seen with hepatozoonisis?
What clinical signs are seen with hepatozoonosis?
fever and inappetance, Acute (bloody) diarrhea, Weight loss, muscle pain, lameness/bone pain, hyperesthesia over spinal regions of the body
What lab findings are expected with hepatozoonisis infections?
Panosteitis on radiographs; Non-regenerative ACD; Leukocytosis with L shift (neutrophilia); Hypoalbuminemia and hyperglobulinemia; PL-nephropathy and renal failure from chronic antigenic stimulation
How do you diagnose hepatozoonosis?
Demonstrate organism in buffy coat and skeletal muscle biopsy; ELISA; PCR
How do you treat hepatozoonosis infections?
No therapeutic regimen (alleviate pain only); Daily Decoquinate to reduce relapses; Toltrazuril; Anti-inflammatories; Tick control; TMPS/Clindamycin/Pyriemthamie for 14d in acute stage
How long are dogs expected to live with hepatozoonosis infections?
What should you not use to treat hepatozoonosis infections?
What are the target organs of a hepatozoonosis infection?
What is the agent that causes cytauxzoonosis infections?
What is the primary reservoir and vector of C. felis?
Bobcat is the primary reservoir; Agent transmitted by Dermacentor variablilis
What stage of disease characterizes a Cytauzoonosis infection?
Acute and usually fatal
How is cytauxzoonosis transmitted?
Tick contains an intraerythrocytic parasite which releases merozoites infecting RBCs causing a hemolytic crisis
What clinical signs are expected with Cytauxzoonosis infection?
Acute onset, pale MM, fever, respiratory distress, icterus, anorexia, hepatosplenomegaly
What lab findings are expected with C. felis infection?
Anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, icterus, coagulation disorder
How would you diagnose an infection of C. felis?
Demonstrate organism in blood smear (schizonts in macrophages and attached to endothelial vessels)
How would you treat an infection of C. felis?
Supportive therapy (fluids, blood transfusions, heparin to prevent DIC), Imidocarb or Diminazene (2 doses, 2 wks apart), Fluoroquinolone or Doxycycline; Vector control
What is the prognosis of a C. felis infection?
What are the target organs of C. felis infection?
HL, Resp, GI
What agents cause hemobartonella/mycoplasma infections?
H. felis and H. canis
How is a hemobartonella infection transmitted?
blood transmissions from bite wounds/fleas/ticks (?)
What risk factors are associated with hemobartonella infections in cats?
Male, young, outdoor, Springtime
What disease states are expected with hemobartonella infections?
Asymptomatic, Acute, Chronic, Carrier
What laboratory findings are expected in cats with hemobartonella infections?
Extravascular hemolytic disease (regenerative anemia, Coombs +, splenomegaly, icterus, bilirubinuria, inflammatory leukogram
How would you diagnose an infection of hemobartonella?
Demonstration of organism on peripheral blood smear (dont put in EDTA), PCR and response to treatment
How would you treat hemobartonellosis?
Supportive (fluids, blood if severely anemic); Antibacterials (Tetracycline, Doxy, Chlorampenicol, Enrofloxacin); Glucocorticoids for treatment of immune-complex formation; control ectoparasites
What are the target organs of hemobartonella infections?
What is another name for hemobartonella/mycoplasma infections?
Feline infectious anemia
What agent transmits RMSF?
How is RMSF transmitted?
Transovarian and tick bites of 3-6 hrs (D. variabilis and D. andersoni) causing systemic vasculitis
What time of year are RMSF infections predominant?
April - Sept in SE states
What disease state is expected with RMSF infections?
Acute disease with <10d presentation
What clinical signs are expected with RMSF infections?
RESP (tachypnea, dyspnea); RENAL; HL (hemorrhage, edema, necrosis of extremities, DIC); CNS (vestibular, seizures); Other (polyarthritis,fever)
What are expected lab findings with RMSF?
leukocytosis (neutrophilia), thrombocytopenia, mild anemia, azotemia, inflam sediment (low protein, sodium, calcium; increased liver enzymes)
How would you diagnose a RMSF infection?
Serology (4x titer rise); Direct IFA or IHC; PCR
How would you treat a RMSF infection?
Supportive care (GI fluid and electrolyte losses, renal disease, DIC, anemia); Tetracycline/Doxycycline/Chlorampenicol/Enrofloxacin; Tick control
What does life-long immunity mean in RMSF?
No reoccurence possible
What risk factors are associated with Leptospirosis?
intact male, middle-aged, herding dog, summer-early fall
What stages of disease are associated with leptospirosis infections?
Acute to subacute stages
What clinical signs are expected with leptospirosis infections?
GI (vomit/diarrhea); Renal (anuria/oliguria/enlarged kidneys/discolored urine); Resp distress; Ant uveitis "red eye"; CNS (meningeal pain); Myalgia; hemorrhage
What lab findings are associated with Leptospirosis infections?
Leukocytosis with no L shift; thrombocytpenia, anemia, inc liver enzymes, Azotemia (isos/hyposthenuria); inflam sediment; CK increases
How would you diagnose lepto infections?
Serology seroconversion; MAT, Culture urine, PCR, histopath (silver stains and flur Ab test)
How would you treat lepto infections?
Fluid therapy, Abs [Pen/Amp + Doxy/Macro], Vaccination
What are the target organs of lepto infections?
Renal, HL, GI, MS, Cardiac