1. The average North American newborn measures:
A) 14 inches (36 cm).
B) 16 inches (41 cm).
C) 20 inches (51 cm).
D) 24 inches (60 cm).
2. The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:
A) the blood-brain barrier.
D) caudal protection.
3. A reflex is a(n):
A) involuntary response to a stimulus.
B) self-righting drive.
D) caudal protection.
4. Which of the following demonstrates the Babinski reflex?
A) An infant performs walking movements when held upright with his feet touching the floor.
B) An infant's toes fan upward when her foot is stroked.
C) An infant flings his arms outward when startled.
D) An infant turns her head and starts sucking when her cheek is stroked.
5. A newborn is lying in his crib. Someone across the room speaks. How will the newborn react to the voice?
A) He won't react at all because his sense of hearing is not well developed.
B) If the voice is that of his mother, he will turn in the direction of the voice; otherwise he will ignore the voice.
C) He will turn his head in the direction of the voice.
D) He will show a startle response and probably cry.
6. The neonate's vision:
A) is clearest when objects are 4 to 30 inches away.
B) is clearest when objects are about 10 feet away.
C) does not improve until age 1.
D) is the most developed of the senses.
7. Breast milk:
A) is deficient in iron and vitamin C.
B) is more likely than formula to produce allergies.
C) provides antibodies to fight diseases.
D) upsets the baby's digestive system more often than fornulas.
8. During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
A) learn to use language to express sensations.
B) think of past and future events.
C) use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
D) think logically and critically.
9. Hugh enjoys playing with your keys. When you take them away and place them in your pocket, Hugh does not search for them. Piaget would say that Hugh does not understand:
B) object permanence.
10. An infant's reaction to the visual cliff is supposed to measure her:
B) perceptual constancy.
D) depth perception.
11. After the child's vocabulary has reached about 50 words, the vocabulary increases by approximately ______ words per month.
12. The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explain:
A) vocabulary spurts.
B) the difference between surface structure and deep structure.
C) the universal inborn ability to learn language.
D) the systematic differences among languages.
The emotion of anger usually appears by the age of:
B) 2 months.
C) 6 months.
D) 1 year.
An infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is called:
A) stranger wariness.
B) extrafamilial fear.
C) fear of the unknown.
D) separation anxiety.
If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some:
A) dynamic perception.
B) perceptual constancy.
C) social referencing.
Sigmund Freud was a(n):
A) ethological theorist.
C) psychoanalytic theorist.
D) humanistic theorist.
The first crisis of life, according to Erikson, is:
A) industry vs. inferiority.
B) autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
C) trust vs. mistrust.
D) the oral stage.
Failure to develop self-rule over one's own actions is most closely identified with:
C) the oral stage.
D) shame and doubt.
According to the New York Longitudinal Study, by approximately three months of age, infants exhibit _ temperamental traits.
Which of the following acronyms might you use to remember the Big Five personality traits?
Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
A crucial aspect of synchrony is:
A) infants observing adults
B) infants imitating adults
C) mutual interaction
D) unilateral imitation
Attachment in infants is solidified by what age?
A) 6 months
B) 8 months
C) 2 years
D) 1 year
Carrie is being held by her father. She is smiling at him one minute and then, unexpectedly, she slaps his face. This is a sign of which type of attachment?
•Average weight at birth: pounds
17 ; one- to three
•Newborns sleep about __ hours a day, in ___________-hour segments.
•The first movements are not skills but reflexes, involuntary responses to a particular stimulus.
breathing, thrashing, shivering, sucking, rooting, swallowing, spitting up; rooting
Some reflexes help insure survival: _________, _________, _________, _______, _______, __________, ___________ .
- The most important reflex is _______.
•. When infants are held upright with their feet touching a flat surface, they move their legs as if to walk.
•. When they are laid horizontally on their stomachs, infants stretch out their arms and legs.
Palmar grasping reflex
•. When something touches infants' palms, they grip it tightly.
•. When someone startles them, perhaps by banging on the table they are lying on, infants fling their arms outward and then bring them together on their chests, as if to hold on to something, while crying with wide-open eyes.
Sensation ; Perception
_________ is information coming in. __________ is taking the information and reacting to it.
The sense of hearing
develops during the last trimester of pregnancy and is already quite acute at birth; it is the most advanced of the newborn's senses.
is the least mature sense at birth.
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
•In 1990, about 5,000 babies died of __________ in the U.S.
•________ occurs between 2 months and 1 year
•-Piaget's term for a type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or __________ with, old ideas.
•-Piaget's term for a type of adaptation in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences.
•- The high-pitched, simplified, repetitive way adults speak to infants (also called baby talk or motherese).
•includes all the devices by which words communicate meaning: sequence, prefixes, suffixes, intonation, loudness, verb forms, pronouns, negations, prepositions, and articles.
Oral stage (first year): The mouth
•is the young infant's primary source of gratification
Anal stage (second year):
• Infant's main pleasure comes from the anus (e.g. sensual pleasure of bowel movements and the psychological pleasure of controlling them)