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american history chapter 24

The name for the small group of poets and writers who railed against mainstream culture, and that included Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg was

Beats.

Which does not describe Rosa Parks in the years prior to her December 1, 1955, arrest?

She was a housewife, with no previous experience as a political activist.

What was the landmark United States Supreme Court case decided on May 17, 1954, in which the Warren Court unanimously asserted that segregation in public education violated the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment?

Brown v. Board of Education

In the 1950s, Richard Nixon pioneered efforts to transform the Republican Party's image

from defender of business to champion of the "forgotten man," for whom heavy taxation had become a burden.

Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?

Geneva summit between Eisenhower and Khrushchev; Soviet invasion of Hungary; Khrushchev visit to United States; U-2 incident

Which of the following was not a significant trend in 1950s America?

a surge of student radicalism on college campuses

The wave of decolonization that began when India and Pakistan achieved independence in 1947, and by which, in the decades following World War II, Europe's centuries-old empires collapsed, witnessed the newly created Third World nations

resisting alignment with either major power bloc.

Eric Foner writes, "the either-or mentality of the Cold War obscured the extent to which the United States itself fell short of the ideal of freedom." In this context, to what does "the either-or mentality" refer?

the notion that, in a polarized world, you were either for the United States or for the Soviet Union

In 1955, what percentage of non-agricultural workers were unionized?

35 percent

Which was not one of the elements of "the power elite"—the interlocking directorate that dominated government and society in the 1950s—in the view of sociologist C. Wright Mills?

labor leaders

Which of the following was not a feature of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s, philosophy?

Black Americans must not try for full racial equality too quickly; before they achieve that, they must first prove their worthiness to all America.

The principal organization in the Southwest—the equivalent of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—that challenged restrictions on housing and employment, as well as the segregation of Latino students was named

the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC).

Which of the following did not inform Martin Luther King, Jr.'s, 1950s leadership of the civil rights movement?

the writings of Malcolm X., particularly his autobiography

Which was not part of the new "social contract" between organized labor and management in leading industries during the 1950s?

Unions sponsored "wildcat" strikes in an effort to discipline management.

The National Defense Education Act, which for the first time offered direct federal funding for higher education, was passed into law by Congress in 1957 in response to

the Soviet launch of the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik.

During the 1950s, the mass movement for civil rights found principal support among

the southern black church.

What did President Eisenhower call his domestic agenda, which embraced a "mixed economy," in which the government played a major role in planning economic activity, and by which Eisenhower consolidated and legitimized the New Deal?

Modern Republicanism

The 1954 update to the doctrine of containment, announced by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, that declared a Soviet attack on any American ally would be countered by a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union, was called "brinksmanship" by its critics and what by supporters?

massive retaliation

What was the coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists that pressed for desegregation and was formed in 1955, and in whose organizing Martin Luther King, Jr., took the lead?

the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine

pledged the United States to defend Middle Eastern governments threatened by communism or Arab nationalism.

Which of the following was not a prominent feature of suburban married life during the Fifties?

a growing tendency of husbands and wives to share the roles of breadwinner and homemaker

In 1953, Dwight Eisenhower brought to the presidency all of the following experiences, except

being chief executive officer of the General Electric Corporation.

A leading voice of the Beats was

Allen Ginsberg.

Which of the following was not a key premise of American foreign policy during the Eisenhower years?

The United States will always respect the sovereignty of foreign democracies—even those whose policies we oppose.

In the aftermath of Rosa Parks's arrest for refusing to give her bus seat to a white rider, a year-long bus boycott took place in what city?

Montgomery, Alabama

Which of the following was not a key cause of the economic prosperity of the Fifties?

large income tax reductions

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