Chapter 28 Pregnancy and Human Development

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The fertilized egg is known as the __________.

zygote

Sperm freshly deposited in the female vagina are incapable of fertilizing an egg. What must happen first?

capacitation

Which of the following is the primary germ layer that forms the basis for the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems, and for associated glands?

endoderm

What structure(s) ultimately form(s) the placenta?

decidua basalis and chorionic villi

A dangerous complication of pregnancy called __________ results in an insufficient placental blood supply, which can starve a fetus of oxygen. The pregnant woman becomes edematous and hypertensive, and proteinuria occurs.

preeclampsia

Which of the following INCORRECTLY matches an embryonic structure with its function?

yolk sac/provides nutrients to developing embryo

Which of the following structures is derived from the ectoderm?

brain and spinal cord

T/F: While human chorionic gonadotropin levels spike and sharply decline to reach a low value by four months, estrogen and progesterone levels steadily increase over the course of the pregnancy.

True

Which body system of a pregnant woman shows the most dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy?

cardiovascular system

In which stage of labor does crowning occur?

expulsion

What does the foramen ovale become at birth?

fossa ovalis

pregnant woman with preeclampsia becomes edematous and hypertensive. An effective way to treat these symptoms might be ______.

to use drugs that cause systemic vasodilatation

During a cesarean section, an incision is made through all EXCEPT which of the following?

...decidua basalis

T/F: A zygote is usually formed within the uterus.

False

T/F: Freshly deposited sperm are not capable of penetrating an oocyte.

True

T/F: Fertilization occurs while the egg is still in the ovarian follicle.

False

T/F: The period from fertilization through week eight is called the embryonic period

True

Sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the energy of their own flagella. What other factor is involved in sperm movement?

reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes

Select the correct statement about fertilization

Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment

How long is the egg viable and capable of being fertilized after it is ovulated?

12-24 hours

Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?

They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate.

It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after ________.

they undergo capacitation

What destroys the sperm receptors on the surface of the oocyte?

zonal inhibiting proteins

Once sperm are deposited into the vagina, sperm motility must be enhanced and they must be prepared to release hydrolytic enzymes from their acrosomes. What is this process called?

capacitation

What is the event that results when the maternal and paternal chromosomes combine?

fertilization

T/F: The "fluid-filled, hollow ball of cells" stage of development is the blastocyst.

True

T/F: A pregnancy test involves antibodies that detect GH levels in a woman's blood or urine.

False

T/F: By 72 hours after fertilization, the egg has divided into more than 160 cells and is called the morula.

False

T/F: Conceptus is a term used to describe the developing human offspring.

True

Which of the following is the correct sequence of development from zygote to embryo?

cleavage, morula, blastocyst, gastrula

The decidua basalis is ________.

located between the developing embryo and the myometrium

Cleavage as part of embryonic development is distinctive because it involves ________.

cell division by mitosis with little or no growth between successive divisions

Which hormone is not produced by the placenta?

inhibin

The trophoblast is mostly responsible for forming the ________.

placental tissue

Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?

human chorionic gonadotropin

Which of the following events does not occur during the first 8 weeks of development?

myelination of the spinal cord

The correct sequence of preembryonic structures is ________.

zygote, morula, blastocyst

The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of a contribution from mother and fetus. Which portion is from the fetus?

chorion

Estrogen and progesterone maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and prepare the mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible during the first three months of pregnancy?

corpus luteum

Together, what do the decidua basalis and the chorionic villi form?

placenta

How much time passes after fertilization until implantation occurs?

7 days

T/F: The embryo is directly enclosed in and protected by the amnion.

True

T/F: In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the nonaerated lungs is by way of the foramen ovale.

True

At what period of fetal development are all body systems present in at least rudimentary form?

8 weeks post fertilization

Derivatives of the endoderm include ________.

epithelium of the respiratory tract

Derivatives of the mesoderm include ________.

endothelium of blood and lymph vessels

Neural tissue is formed by the ________.

ectoderm

Muscle tissue is formed by the ________.

mesoderm

The dorsal surface cells of the inner cell mass form ________.

the primitive streak

T/F: The first major event in organogenesis is neurulation

True

Which of the following is derived from the somites of the mesoderm?

vertebrae and ribs

Which extra-embryonic membrane protects the developing embryo against physical trauma and helps maintain a constant homeostatic temperature?

amnion

T/F: The body systems of the developing embryo are present in at least rudimentary form at eight weeks.

True

Which fetal vascular shunt directly connects the right atrium to the left atrium so as to bypass the nonfunctional lungs?

foramen ovale

T/F: A pregnant woman urinates more often than usual because the uterus compresses the bladder, and she must also dispose of fetal metabolic wastes.

True

Relaxin is a hormone produced by the placenta and ovaries. The function of this hormone is to ________.

relax the pubic symphysis

T/F: The sole responsibility of the placenta is to supply the fetus with oxygen and nutrients

False

T/F: The placenta and its attached fetal membranes are collectively called the afterbirth

True

T/F: An episiotomy is an incision made to widen the vaginal orifice, aiding fetal expulsion.

True

During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?

expulsion stage

At which stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?

placental

A premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall is called ________.

abrupto placenta

Which of the following is the longest stage of labor, lasting 6-12 hours or more?

dilation stage

The softening and thinning of the cervix during the dilation stage is known as ___________.

effacement

What is released from fetal lungs in the weeks before delivery to soften the cervix in preparation for labor?

surfactant protein A (SP-A)

The cardiovascular system of a newborn must be adjusted after the infant takes its first breath. Which of the following is also true?

The ductus arteriosus constricts and is converted to the ligamentum arteriosum.

Hormones concerned with events of lactation include ________.

oxytocin

Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?

oxytocin

T/F: The birth control pill is the most common and most effective birth control method.

True

T/F: The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the eighth week.

True

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